CNN-National & Wolrd

Dow Jones Industrial Average Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Dow Jones Industrial Average.


The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a stock index comprised of 30 “blue-chip” US stocks. It is meant to be a way to measure the strength or weakness of the entire US stock market.

The Dow began in 1896 with 12 industrial stocks.

Dow Jones & Co was founded by journalists Charles Dow and Edward Jones.

Current Dow stocks


Record high close – May 7, 2021, the Dow closes at 34,777.76 points.

Biggest one-day point gain – March 24, 2020, the Dow gains 2,112.98 points.

Biggest one-day percentage gain – March 15, 1933, the Dow closes up 15.34%.

Biggest one-day point loss – March 16, 2020, the Dow closes down 2,997.1 points.

Biggest one-day percentage loss – October 19, 1987, the Dow closes down 22.61%.


1882 – Dow, Jones & Co. is created.

1884 – Charles Dow creates the Dow Averages, the precursor to the DJIA.

May 26, 1896 – The first index, made up of 12 industrial companies, is published and the Dow opens at 40.94 points.

January 12, 1906 – The Dow closes at 100.25, the first close above 100.

October 24, 1929 – The Stock Market crash of 1929 begins which leads to the Great Depression of the 1930s. It takes 25 years for the Dow to regain its September 1929 high of 381 points.

1930 – Dow Jones becomes incorporated and the comma in the name is dropped.

March 12, 1956 – The Dow closes at 500.24, the first close above 500.

November 14, 1972 – The Dow closes at 1,003.16, the first close above 1,000.

October 19, 1987 – The Dow closes down 508 points, at the time the biggest one-day drop ever in the Dow’s history.

November 21, 1995 – The Dow closes at 5,023.55, the first close above 5,000.

March 29, 1999 – The Dow closes at 10,006,78, the first close above 10,000.

September 17, 2001 – Stock markets reopen after the 9/11 terror attacks.

September 21, 2001 – After the first full week of trading post 9/11, the Dow falls more than 1,300 points, or about 14%.

October 19, 2006 – The Dow closes at 12,011.73, the first close above 12,000.

April 25, 2007 – The Dow closes at 13,089.89, the first close above 13,000.

July 19, 2007 – The Dow closes at 14,000.41, the first close above 14,000.

September 29, 2008 – Worst single-day point drop in history at the time, plunging 777.68 points – the same day the US House rejects the $700 billion financial bailout package.

October 6-10, 2008 – Worst weekly point and percentage decline finishing at 8,451.19, or down 1,874.19 points and 18.15% for the week.

February 21, 2012 – The Dow crosses the 13,000 level for the first time since May of 2008.

February 1, 2013 – The Dow closes above 14,000 for the first time since October of 2007.

May 7, 2013 – The Dow closes above 15,000 for the first time.

November 21, 2013 – The Dow closes above 16,000 for the first time, at 16,009.99.

July 3, 2014 – The Dow closes at 17,068.26, the first close above 17,000.

December 23, 2014 – The Dow closes at 18,024.17, the first close above 18,000.

August 26, 2015 – The Dow closes with a 619-point gain, the biggest daily point gain since 2008.

January 7, 2016 – The Dow drops 5% in its first four days of the year, the worst four-day percentage loss to start a year on record.

November 22, 2016 – The Dow closes at 19,023.87, the first close above 19,000.

January 25, 2017 – The Dow hits the 20,000 milestone for the first time in history.

March 1, 2017 – The Dow closes at 21,115.55, the first close over 21,000 in history.

August 2, 2017 – The Dow closes above 22,000 for the first time, at 22,016.24.

October 18, 2017 – The Dow closes above 23,000 for the first time, at 23,157.60.

November 30, 2017 – The Dow closes above 24,000 for the first time, at 24,272.35.

January 4, 2018 – The Dow closes at 25,075.13, the first close above 25,000.

January 17, 2018 – The Dow closes at 26,115.65, the first time it has closed above 26,000.

July 11, 2019 – The Dow closes at 27,088.08, the first time it has closed above 27,000.

November 15, 2019 – The Dow closes above 28,000 for the first time, at 28,004.89.

January 15, 2020 – The Dow closes above 29,000 for the first time, at 29,030.22.

March 16, 2020 – The Dow records its worst one-day point drop in history, 2,997.1 points, and its worst performance on a percentage basis since October 19, 1987, also known as “Black Monday.”

March 24, 2020 – The Dow closes with a 2,112.98-point gain, to become the biggest one-day point gain in history.

November 24, 2020 – The Dow closes above 30,000 for the first time, at 30,046.24.

January 7, 2021 – The Dow closes at 31,041.13, the first close above 31,000.

March 10, 2021 – The Dow closes at 32,297.02, the first close above 32,000.

March 17, 2021 – The Dow closes above 33,000 for the first time, at 33,015.37.

April 15, 2021 – The Dow closes above 34,000 for the first time, at 34,035.99.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Ricin Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at ricin, a natural, highly toxic compound that is extracted from castor beans.


About one million tons of castor beans are processed every year, worldwide. Ricin is part of the waste from the beans when castor oil is made. Sometimes this is called “mash.”

Less than a pinpoint can kill a human if ingested, injected or inhaled. There is no known cure.

Ricin can be used in powder, pellet, mist or acid form.

If injected, ricin causes immediate death of the muscles and lymph nodes near the site of the injection. Failure of the major organs and death usually follow.

If ingested it causes nausea, vomiting and internal bleeding of the stomach and intestines, followed by failure of the liver, spleen and kidneys, and death by collapse of the circulatory system.

If a castor bean is swallowed whole without damage to the seed coat, it will probably pass harmlessly through the system. But if the coat is chewed or broken, then swallowed, the poison will enter the body.

Timeline (selected)

1978 – Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov is shot with a ricin-tipped dart fired from an umbrella while waiting for a bus in London. He dies four days later.

February 2, 2004 – Ricin is found in Senator Bill Frist’s mailroom in the Dirksen Senate office building.

February 3, 2004 – Law enforcement sources say that a letter addressed to the White House was intercepted in November 2003 after it was found to contain ricin. Ricin was also found in a letter in October 2003 at a postal handling facility in Greenville, South Carolina. The letter in Greenville was addressed to the Department of Transportation and demanded that changes in truckers’ sleep/work schedules not be implemented.

February 22, 2008 – A small amount of ricin and firearms are found in a Las Vegas hotel room.

March 1, 2008 – Roger Von Bergendorff, a California resident, is named as the occupant of the Las Vegas hotel room. Bergendorff had been rushed to the hospital on February 14 due to respiratory problems.

April 16, 2008 – Bergendorff is charged with possession of a biological toxin, possession of unregistered firearms and possession of firearms not identified by serial number.

April 28, 2008 – Thomas Tholen of Utah, Bergendorff’s cousin, pleads not guilty on charges he knew about the creation of ricin and did not report it. Investigators believe Bergendorff’s ricin was created in Tholen’s basement.

August 4, 2008 – Bergendorff pleads guilty to possession of a biological toxin and possession of unregistered firearms.

October 22, 2008 – Tholen receives two years’ probation and is ordered to pay a fine of $500 for knowing his cousin produced and carried ricin.

November 17, 2008 – Bergendorff is sentenced to three and a half years in federal prison and fined $7,500.

January 28, 2011 – Jeff Boyd Levenderis is arrested after a coffee can containing ricin is found in his foreclosed home in Coventry Township, Ohio. When the FBI questions Levenderis, he says the substance is ant poison, but later admits it is ricin that he made 10 years earlier.

February 1, 2011 – A federal grand jury indicts Levenderis on one count of possessing a biological toxin and one count of making false statements.

April 16, 2013 – An envelope addressed to Senator Roger Wicker of Mississippi tests positive for ricin at the US Capitol’s off-site mail facility.

April 17, 2013 – The Secret Service announces that a letter addressed to President Barack Obama, containing a “suspicious substance,” was intercepted at the White House’s off-site mail facility on April 16. Later in the day the FBI confirms that the letter tested positive for ricin.

April 17, 2013 – A law enforcement source tells CNN that the letters to Obama and Wicker contain the same language and read, “To see a wrong and not expose it, is to become a silent partner to its continuance.” Both letters are signed, “I am KC and I approve this message.”

April 17, 2013 – Lee County, Mississippi, Sheriff Jim Johnson says that a letter received by Judge Sadie Holland has notable similarities to letters sent to President Obama and Senator Wicker.

April 27, 2013 – James Everett Dutschke, of Tupelo, Mississippi, is arrested on suspicion of sending ricin-laced letters to President Obama and others.

May 22, 2013 – Matthew Ryan Buquet is arrested in Spokane, Washington, and suspected of sending ricin-laced letters threatening federal Judge Fred Van Sickle.

May 29, 2013 – Officials intercept a letter sent to President Obama that is similar to letters sent to New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg and the group Mayors Against Illegal Guns. The letters are postmarked Shreveport, Louisiana, and are found to contain “very low concentrations” of ricin.

June 3, 2013 – Dutschke is indicted in the mailing of ricin-laced letters to President Obama, Republican Sen. Wicker of Mississippi and Lee County Judge Holland. He later pleads guilty and is sentenced to 25 years in prison.

June 7, 2013 – Shannon Richardson, an actress who had a minor role in the TV series “The Walking Dead,” is arrested and charged in connection with ricin-tainted letters that were mailed to President Obama and Mayor Bloomberg.

June 27, 2013 – Richardson is indicted for sending letters containing ricin to President Obama and Mayor Bloomberg.

December 10, 2013 – Richardson pleads guilty to possession of a toxin for use as a weapon. She is later sentenced to 18 years in prison.

March 21, 2014 – Georgetown University student Daniel Harry Milzman is arrested and charged with possessing a biological toxin after admitting he made ricin in his dorm room. Milzman is later sentenced to one year and one day in prison.

June 4, 2014 – Levenderis is convicted of possessing ricin for use as a weapon and also possessing ricin and making false statements to FBI agents. He is later sentenced to six years in prison.

November 30, 2017 – Seventy-year-old Betty Miller is arrested and charged with unregistered possession of a select agent. Miller tells an FBI agent that she was making ricin in her home and testing its effectiveness on other residents of the Wake Robin continuing care retirement community.

May 18, 2018 – Miller pleads guilty to possessing ricin.

October 2, 2018 – Envelopes suspected of containing ricin are addressed to President Donald Trump and three top government officials, FBI Director Chris Wray, Secretary of Defense James Mattis and chief of naval operations Adm. John Richardson. The envelopes sent to the Pentagon are intercepted at the Pentagon mail facility and the envelope addressed to Trump never enters the White House.

October 3, 2018 – Navy veteran William Clyde Allen III is arrested on terrorist charges and confesses to sending the letters that tested positive for ricin to Trump and three government officials.

October 18, 2018 – The Justice Department announces a seven-count indictment against Allen, including an allegation that he “knowingly threatened to use a biological agent and toxin, specifically ricin, as a weapon.” Allen pleads not guilty to all charges.

September 2020 – A package containing ricin and addressed toTrump is intercepted mid-month, according to law enforcement officials. The address of the sender is St. Hubert, Quebec, Canada. The FBI confirms that a woman was arrested September 20 as she attempted to enter the United States from Canada. Authorities are investigating similar packages mailed to addresses in Texas that may be connected to the same sender.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Tiger Woods Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at one of the most successful golfers in history, Tiger Woods.


Birth date: December 30, 1975

Birth place: Cypress, California

Birth name: Eldrick Tont Woods

Father: Earl Woods

Mother: Kultilda (Punsawad) Woods

Marriage: Elin Nordegren (October 5, 2004-August 23, 2010, divorced)

Children: Charlie Axel and Sam Alexis

Education: Attended Stanford University, 1994-1996

Other Facts

Won the Masters Tournament five times, the US Open three times, the PGA Championship four times and the British Open three times.

Woods is the PGA career money list leader.

With 82 PGA Tour wins, Woods is tied with Sam Snead for most all-time career victories.

His father nicknamed him “Tiger” after a South Vietnamese soldier with whom he had fought alongside during the Vietnam War.


1978 – At the age of 2, wins a putting contest with Bob Hope. The match was staged for the “Mike Douglas Show.”

1980 – Appears on the TV show “That’s Incredible.”

1991 – Wins his first US Junior Amateur golf championship. At 15 years of age, Woods was the youngest champion in history until 14-year-old Jim Liu broke his record in 2010.

1992 – Wins his second US Junior Amateur golf championship.

February 27, 1992 – Competes in his first PGA tournament at the age of 16. He is given a sponsor’s exemption in order to play and is the youngest player ever to play in a PGA tournament at that time.

1993 – Wins his third US Junior Amateur golf championship.

1994-1996 – Wins three consecutive US Amateur golf championships.

August 27, 1996 – Turns professional.

August 1996 – Signs a five-year endorsement deal with Nike worth $40 million.

October 6, 1996 – Wins his first tournament as a professional at the Las Vegas Invitational.

1996 – Forms the Tiger Woods Foundation for the promotion of minority participation in golf and other sports. In February 2018, the charity is renamed TGR Foundation to reflect its growth and scope.

April 13, 1997 – Wins his first Masters Tournament.

May 19, 1997 – Signs an endorsement deal with American Express worth between $13 and $30 million.

June 1997 – Becomes the No. 1 ranked golfer in the world after his 42nd week on the PGA Tour. At 21 years, 24 weeks, he is the youngest player ever to hold the No. 1 spot.

August 15, 1999 – Wins his first PGA championship.

June 18, 2000 – Wins his first US Open by 15 strokes, the largest margin in US Open history.

July 23, 2000 – Wins his first British Open.

September 14, 2000 – Signs a five-year endorsement contract with Nike. It is worth an estimated $85 million, making it the richest endorsement contract in sports history, at the time.

June 16, 2002 – Wins his second US Open.

December 8, 2003 – Named PGA Player of the Year for the fifth straight year.

May 13, 2005 – Woods fails to make the cut at the Byron Nelson Championship in Irving, Texas. It is the first time since 1998 that Woods is eliminated from a tournament.

November 23, 2005 – Wins the PGA Grand Slam of Golf for a record-breaking sixth time.

February 10, 2006 – Opens the Tiger Woods Learning Center in Anaheim, California.

May 3, 2006 – Woods’ father, Earl Woods, dies of prostate cancer.

July 23, 2006 – Wins his third British Open.

August 20, 2006 – Wins his third PGA Championship.

August 12, 2007 – Wins his fourth PGA Championship.

April 15, 2008 – Undergoes arthroscopic surgery on his left knee. He had two prior surgeries on the same knee, first in 1994 to remove a benign tumor, and another arthroscopic surgery in December 2002.

June 16, 2008 – Wins the US Open in sudden death, defeating Rocco Mediate.

June 18, 2008 – Woods announces that he will undergo reconstructive anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery on his left knee and will miss the remainder of the PGA tour season.

February 26, 2009 – After an eight-month hiatus from golf due to knee surgery, Woods plays the second round of the World Golf Championships Match Play and loses to Tim Clark.

November 15, 2009 – Wins the Australian Masters.

November 27, 2009 – Is taken to a hospital after being injured in a car accident in front of his home in Florida. He is released later the same day.

December 2, 2009 – Woods apologizes for “transgressions” that let his family down — the same day a gossip magazine publishes a report alleging he had an affair. He does not admit to an affair and offers no details about the “transgressions” in his statement.

February 19, 2010 – Makes a televised statement apologizing for being unfaithful to his wife and letting down both fans and family. “I had affairs, I cheated. What I did was not acceptable, and I am the only person to blame,” he says. Responding to rumors, Woods says that his wife never hit him, as some media reported in connection with the car crash on November 27, 2009, and that there has “never been an episode of domestic violence” in his relationship with his wife. Woods also says that he entered a rehabilitation center for 45 days, from the end of December to early February, and that he will continue to receive treatment and therapy.

October 31, 2010 – After 281 straight weeks, the longest in Official World Golf Ranking history, Woods loses his No. 1 ranking to Lee Westwood.

2010 – Loses about $20 million from estimated endorsements after sponsors including Gatorade, AT&T and Accenture end ties. Other sponsors including Nike, Upper Deck and EA Sports remain with Woods.

June 7, 2011 – Announces he will miss the US Open due to knee and Achilles tendon injuries.

July 19, 2011 – Woods announces that after a 12-year relationship, he and caddie Steve Williams will no longer be working together.

August 4, 2011 – Returns to golf at the Bridgestone Invitational, after a nearly three-month break.

August 11, 2011 – Plays one of his worst first rounds of golf in a major championship. He fails to make the cut at the PGA Championship for the first time in his career.

October 3, 2011 – For the first time in 15 years, Woods does not make it onto golf’s top 50 players list, according to the official World Golf Ranking.

October 5, 2011 – Signs a new endorsement deal with Swiss watch-maker Rolex.

March 25, 2012 – Earns his first PGA Tour win since September 2009, in the Arnold Palmer Invitational in Orlando.

June 3, 2012 – With his win at the Memorial Tournament, ties Jack Nicklaus with 73 PGA Tour victories.

July 2, 2012 – Beats Nicklaus’ PGA Tour record with the AT&T National win. Woods’ 74th PGA Tour win ranks him in second place on the all-time list.

September 3, 2012 – Becomes the first PGA tour participant to earn $100 million.

March 25, 2013 – Woods wins the Arnold Palmer Invitational for the eighth time, and regains the No. 1 spot.

March 31, 2014 – Woods undergoes back surgery for a pinched nerve.

August 23, 2015 – Woods posts a top 10 finish at his debut at the Wyndham Championships but ends his season as the 257th ranked player in the world. His finish was four shots off eventual winner Davis Love III. Woods has now missed the cut for three majors in a row.

December 1, 2015 – Woods announces that he underwent his third microdiscectomy surgery last month — a procedure to remove bone around a pinched nerve to allow space for it to heal — and admits he has no idea when he will be back on the course.

July 20, 2016 – It is announced that Woods will miss the PGA Championship due to his continued recovery from back surgery. This marks the first time in his career that he has missed all four major championships.

December 4, 2016 – Woods finishes 14 shots behind the winner in the Hero World Challenge, his first competitive event in more than a year.

May 29, 2017 – Woods is arrested on suspicion of DUI in Jupiter, Florida. He says in a statement that he had “an unexpected reaction to prescribed medications” and that alcohol was not involved.

June 19, 2017 – Woods announces that he is receiving professional help to manage medication for back pain and a sleep disorder.

July 3, 2017 – Announces that he has completed an intensive program for managing his medications.

October 27, 2017 – Woods pleads guilty to reckless driving. His 12-month probation is contingent on completing any recommended treatment including DUI school, 50 hours of community services and random drug and alcohol testing.

December 3, 2017 – Making his long-awaited return from a fourth back surgery — his first tournament for 301 days since pulling out of the Dubai Desert Classic in February — Woods finishes in a tie for ninth place in the Hero World Challenge tournament in the Bahamas.

September 23, 2018 – Wins the Tour Championship at Atlanta’s East Lake Golf Club, for his first PGA Tour victory since August 2013 and his 80th overall.

April 14, 2019 – Wins his fifth Masters and 15th major title.

May 6, 2019 – President Donald Trump presents Woods with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, during a White House ceremony.

October 27, 2019 – Woods wins his record-equaling 82nd PGA Tour title at the Zozo Championship in Chiba, Japan. Woods is tied with legendary golfer Sam Snead, who won 82 titles throughout his more than 50-year career.

May 24, 2020 – Woods and Peyton Manning defeat Phil Mickelson and Tom Brady by one stroke in “The Match: Champions for Charity” golf tournament at the Medalist Golf Club in Hobe Sound, Florida. The event raises over $20 million for coronavirus relief efforts and captures an average of 5.8 million viewers to become the most-watched golf telecast in the history of cable television.

February 23, 2021 – Woods is hospitalized after a serious one-car rollover accident in Los Angeles County, according to the LA County Sheriff’s Department. Wood’s agent Mark Steinberg said the golfer suffered “multiple leg injuries” and was in surgery following the accident. The next day, Woods is “awake, responsive, and recovering” in the hospital after emergency surgery on his lower right leg and ankle at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. The leg fractures were “comminuted,” meaning the bone was broken into more than two parts, and “open,” meaning the broken bone was exposed to open air, creating risk of an infection, Chief Medical Officer Dr. Anish Mahajan says in the statement.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Hank Aaron Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the life of Baseball Hall of Fame player Hank Aaron.


Birth date: February 5, 1934

Death date: January 22, 2021

Birth place: Mobile, Alabama

Birth name: Henry Louis Aaron

Father: Herbert Aaron

Mother: Estella (Pritchett) Aaron

Marriages: Billye Williams (1973-January 22, 2021, his death); Barbara Lucas (1953-1971, divorced)

Children: with Billye Williams: adopted her daughter, Ceci; with Barbara Lucas: Dorinda, twins Lary and Gary (Gary died in the hospital), Hank Jr. and Gaile

Other Facts

Statistics in his 23-season career include 3,771 hits, 755 home runs and a batting average of .305.

Selected for 25 Major League Baseball All-Star games.

Nicknamed “Hammerin’ Hank.”

The Atlanta Braves and the Milwaukee Brewers have both retired his jersey number, 44.

His brother, Tommie, was also a MLB player.

Won three Gold Glove awards.


1951 – Begins playing for the Negro American League’s Indianapolis Clowns.

April 13, 1954 – Makes his MLB debut with the Milwaukee Braves.

1954-1965 – Plays for the Milwaukee Braves.

April 23, 1954 Hits his first Major League home run when the Braves play the St. Louis Cardinals.

1957 – The Milwaukee Braves win the World Series. Aaron is named National League MVP.

1966 The Milwaukee Braves become the Atlanta Braves.

1966-1974 Plays for the Atlanta Braves.

April 8, 1974 – Breaks Babe Ruth’s record with his 715th home run during a home game.

1974-1976 – Plays for the Milwaukee Brewers.

July 20, 1976 – Hits his final home run (755).

October 3, 1976 – Plays his final game.

1976-1989 – Becomes director of player development for the Atlanta Braves.

August 1, 1982 – Is inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1989-2021 – Senior vice president of the Atlanta Braves.

1995 – Founds the 755 Restaurant Corporation, which operates multiple fast food franchises in Georgia.

1999 In honor of the 25th anniversary of his home run record, MLB announces the creation of the Hank Aaron Award, to be given to the best overall hitter in each league.

2002 – Receives the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

August 7, 2007 – Barry Bonds, of the San Francisco Giants, surpasses Aaron’s record with 756 home runs.

April 25, 2009 – The permanent exhibit, Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream, opens at the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. There are only two exhibits that honor a single player; the other is for Babe Ruth.

February 13, 2010 – Is inducted as a Georgia Trustee by the Georgia Historical Society.

April 14, 2010 – The Hank Aaron Childhood Home & Museum opens in Mobile, Alabama.

January 14, 2016 – Is presented with the Order of the Rising Sun, one of Japan‘s highest honors, for his work with the World Children’s Baseball Fair.

January 12, 2017 – The Atlanta Braves announce that their new stadium, SunTrust Park, will feature a bronze statue of Aaron, along with other decorations to honor his career. An older statue of him at the Braves’ former ballpark, Turner Field, will remain at the site rather than move to the new venue.

January 22, 2021 – It is announced that Aaron has died at age 86.


Wilbur Ross Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the life of Commerce Secretary Wilbur L. Ross Jr.


Birth date: November 28, 1937

Birth place: Weehawken, New Jersey

Birth name: Wilbur Louis Ross Jr.

Father: Wilbur Louis Ross Sr., a lawyer

Mother: Agnes (O’Neill) Ross, a teacher

Marriages: Hilary (Geary) Ross (October 9, 2004-present); Betsy (McCaughey) Ross (December 7, 1995-August 2000, divorced); Judith (Nodine) Ross (May 26, 1961-October 1995, divorced)

Children: with Judith Nodine: Jessica and Amanda

Education: Yale University, A.B., 1959, Harvard University, M.B.A., 1961

Other Facts

He was called the “King of Bankruptcy,” as he built new companies from the assets of defaulted ones.

Ross was known for investing in distressed companies in a wide range of industries including auto parts, steel, textiles and financial services.


1976-2000 – Works for the investment bank Rothschild Inc. During his tenure, he becomes a top bankruptcy adviser.

January 1998 – Pledges $2.25 million towards then-wife and Lt. Governor Betsy McCaughey Ross’ campaign for governor of New York. He withdraws the funding in September and files for divorce in November.

2000 – Purchases a small fund he started at Rothschild and opens his own private equity firm, WL Ross & Co. LLC.

2002 – Establishes the International Steel Group (ISG), with himself as chairman of the board, through a series of mergers and acquisitions starting with Bethlehem Steel Corp.

December 2003 – ISG goes public.

2004 – Forms the International Coal Group (ICG) after purchasing the assets of Horizon Natural Resources in a bankruptcy auction.

October 2004 – Merges ISG with Mittal Steel for $4.5 billion.

January 2, 2006 – Twelve miners are killed after an explosion at a West Virginia mine operated by an ICG subsidiary. Families of the dead and Randal McCloy, the lone survivor, sue ICG and WL Ross claiming negligence. All of the lawsuits are settled by November 2011.

April 2010 – Purchases a 21% stake in Richard Branson’s Virgin Money. In November 2011, Ross helps Branson fund a successful bid for the British bank Northern Rock.

August 2, 2010 – During an interview with Charlie Rose, Ross states that he’s fine with higher taxes on the wealthy as long as the government puts the money to good use.

June 2011 – Arch Coal, Inc. acquires ICG for $3.4 billion.

September 2011 – WL Ross is one of five US and Canadian companies that purchase a 34.9% stake in the Bank of Ireland. Ross’ share is reportedly 9.3%.

March 21, 2016 – Nexeo Solutions, a chemical distribution company, announces their merger agreement with WL Ross Holding Corporation. The merger is valued at nearly $1.6 billion.

August 24, 2016 – The Securities and Exchange Commission announces that WL Ross will pay a $2.3 million fine for failing to properly disclose fees it charged.

November 30, 2016 – Ross announces in a CNBC interview that President-elect Donald Trump has asked him to serve as his commerce secretary.

February 27, 2017 – The Senate confirms Ross as commerce secretary by a 72-27 vote. He is sworn in the next day.

November 5, 2017 – The New York Times reports that Ross has financial ties to a shipping company whose clients include a Russian energy company co-owned by Russian President Vladimir Putin’s son-in-law. Another customer of the shipping company is Venezuela’s state-run oil company, which has been sanctioned by the US government. The information comes from the Paradise Papers, a release of 13.4 million leaked documents.

November 7, 2017 – Two days after the Paradise Papers are released, Forbes reports that Ross inflated his net worth to be included in the magazine’s annual list of the world’s wealthiest individuals. His name is removed from the magazine’s website. An investigation by the magazine reveals that Ross has likely been providing inaccurate financial information since 2004. Ross claims that the magazine overlooked trusts for his family while tallying his fortune.

March 2, 2018 – During an appearance on CNBC, Ross says the Trump administration’s steel and aluminum tariffs won’t hurt consumers. He holds up a can of Campbell’s soup as he explains that the price of soup will go up less than a penny due to the tariffs.

March 26, 2018 – Ross announces that a citizenship question will be added to the 2020 census.

July 12, 2018 – Ross admits to “errors” in failing to divest assets required by his government ethics agreement and says he will sell all his stock holdings. The admission comes after the Office of Government Ethics took Ross to task for what it said were inconsistencies in his financial disclosure forms.

September 21, 2018 – A federal judge rules that Ross must sit for a deposition in a lawsuit regarding his department’s decision to include a question about citizenship in the 2020 census. The US Supreme Court later blocks the deposition.

December 19, 2018 – The Center for Public Integrity reports that Ross failed to sell a bank stock holding within the required time frame after his 2017 confirmation and subsequently signed ethics documents indicating the holding had been sold.

February 15, 2019 – Ross’ financial disclosure form is rejected by the Office of Government Ethics. Ross later releases a statement saying, “While I am disappointed that my report was not certified, I remain committed to complying with my ethics agreement and adhering to the guidance of Commerce ethics officials.”

June 27, 2019 – The Supreme Court issues a 5-4 ruling that blocks the citizenship question from being added to the census.

July 17, 2019 – The House votes to hold Ross in criminal contempt over a dispute related to the citizenship question on the census. Attorney General William Barr is also held in contempt. Ross releases a statement in which he dismisses the vote as a political stunt. “House Democrats never sought to have a productive relationship with the Trump Administration, and today’s PR stunt further demonstrates their unending quest to generate headlines instead of operating in good faith with our Department.”

July 18, 2020 – A department spokesman says that Ross has been hospitalized for “minor, non-coronavirus related issues.” On July 27, the Commerce Department says Ross has been released from the hospital.

September 28, 2020 – Ross announces that he intends to conclude the 2020 census on October 5. This is more than three weeks earlier than expected and against the October 31 court reinstated end date. Ross asks Census Bureau officials if the earlier date would effectively allow them to produce a final set of numbers during Trump’s current term in office, according to an internal email released the following day as part of a lawsuit.

October 13, 2020 – The Supreme Court grants a request from the Trump administration to halt the census count while an appeal plays out over a lower court’s order that it continue. The Census Bureau announces that the count is ending on October 15.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Rudy Giuliani Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the life of Rudy Giuliani, former mayor of New York City.


Birth date: May 28, 1944

Birth place: Brooklyn, New York

Birth name: Rudolph William Louis Giuliani

Father: Harold Giuliani, a tavern owner

Mother: Helen (D’Avanzo) Giuliani, a secretary

Marriages: Judith Nathan (May 24, 2003-2019, divorced); Donna Hanover (April 15, 1984-July 10, 2002, divorced); Regina Peruggi (October 26, 1968-1982, annulled)

Children: with Donna Hanover: Caroline and Andrew

Education: Manhattan College, B.A., 1965; New York University Law School, J.D., 1968 (magna cum laude)

Religion: Roman Catholic

Other Facts

Widely credited with New York’s revitalization during the 1990s, when crime dropped significantly and the economy boomed.

As mayor, Giuliani was pro-gay rights, pro-gun control and pro-abortion rights.

After the 9/11 attacks, Giuliani was widely praised for his response to the disaster.

His first marriage, to Regina Peruggi, was annulled after 14 years when Giuliani discovered he and his wife were second cousins.

His father, Harold Giuliani, served time in prison for armed robbery in the 1930s.


1968-1970 – After graduating from law school, Giuliani clerks for Southern District of New York Judge Lloyd MacMahon.

1970 – Joins the office of the US Attorney.

1975-1977 – Moves to Washington after being named associate deputy attorney general and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold Tyler.

1977-1981 – Returns to New York and joins the law firm of Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler.

1981-1983 – Serves as associate attorney general, the third-highest position in the US Department of Justice.

1983-1989 – US Attorney for the Southern District of New York. During this time, Giuliani gains national prominence for prosecuting Ivan Boesky, Michael Milken and various mafia figures.

1989 – Giuliani resigns as US attorney and makes his first run for mayor of New York. He loses to David Dinkins in a close race.

1993 – Becomes the first Republican mayor of New York in 20 years, after defeating Dinkins.

January 1, 1994-December 31, 2001 – Mayor of New York.

1997 – Is reelected mayor by a wide margin, carrying four of New York’s five boroughs.

April 27, 2000 – Discloses that he is suffering from prostate cancer.

May 19, 2000 – Announces that he is dropping out of the race for the US Senate to focus on cancer treatment.

2001 – Is named Time’s Person of the Year.

October 15, 2001 – Is appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II.

2002 – His book, “Leadership,” is published.

January 2002 – Leaves the mayor’s office and founds Giuliani Partners, a security consulting firm.

March 8, 2002 – Receives the Ronald Reagan Presidential Freedom Award from Nancy Reagan.

August 30, 2004 – Delivers a speech at the Republican National Convention in New York and later campaigns for President George W. Bush’s reelection.

March 2005 – Joins the Texas law firm of Bracewell & Patterson as a partner. The firm is then renamed Bracewell & Giuliani.

2006 – Bush appoints Giuliani to lead the delegation to Turin, Italy, for the closing ceremonies of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

February 5, 2007 – Files a statement of candidacy with the FEC for the 2008 presidential election.

January 30, 2008 – Drops out of the 2008 presidential election and endorses John McCain.

May 23, 2009 – Gets into an argument with publisher and filmmaker John McCluskey, who is later arrested for allegedly threatening to punch Giuliani.

January 19, 2016 – International law firm Greenberg Traurig says Giuliani is joining the company as global chair of its cybersecurity, privacy and crisis management practice and as senior adviser to CEO Richard A. Rosenbaum.

January 12, 2017 – President-elect Donald Trump’s transition team announces that Giuliani will join them as an adviser “concerning private sector cybersecurity problems and emerging solutions developing in the private sector.”

April 19, 2018 – Joins Trump’s personal legal team.

May 10, 2018 – Announces he has resigned from his law firm, Greenberg Traurig, in order to concentrate on his legal work for Trump during the special counsel investigation into Russian meddling in the 2016 election.

January 16, 2019 – In an interview with CNN’s Chris Cuomo, Giuliani says that he never denied Trump’s campaign colluded with the Russian government during the 2016 campaign, only that the president himself was not involved in collusion.

May 9, 2019 – The New York Times publishes a report in which Giuliani says that he plans to travel to Ukraine to look into former Vice President Joe Biden’s son, Hunter Biden, who worked for a gas company called Burisma Holdings that was owned by an oligarch. Giuliani alleges that in 2016, the vice president improperly pressured Ukraine to oust a prosecutor who was investigating Burisma. Guliani’s allegation is undermined by a report from Bloomberg, which describes the Burisma investigation as “dormant” in 2016. Giuliani tells the Times it is appropriate for him to investigate Biden even as the former vice president campaigns for the 2020 Democratic nomination.

May 11, 2019 – Giuliani reverses course, saying that he will no longer travel to Ukraine to press the country’s leadership for an investigation into Biden and his son.

September 19, 2019 – Guiliani appears on CNN and says that he asked Ukrainian officials to look into Biden.

October 9, 2019 – Two of Giuliani’s associates, Igor Fruman and Lev Parnas are apprehended by authorities at Dulles International Airport before boarding a flight to Vienna with one-way tickets. The men, who were helping Giuliani research Biden, are indicted on multiple charges including conspiracy, false statements and campaign finance violations. Parnas was Giuliani’s fixer in Ukraine, helping the former mayor connect with current and former officials abroad. Parnas and Fruman funneled hundreds of thousands of dollars in illegal donations from foreign nationals into a Trump-allied super PAC, according to the indictment. The men were also involved in a successful scheme to oust the US Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch.

October 10, 2019 – Giuliani tells The Atlantic that he had planned to travel to Vienna but did not intend to meet with Fruman and Parnas until they all returned from Europe. Separately, Trump says that he didn’t know Parnas and Fruman even though Parnas had posted multiple photos of himself with Trump, Vice President Mike Pence and Donald Trump Jr.

October 15, 2019 – US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs George Kent testifies that around January 2019, Giuliani requested a visa from the State Department and the White House for former Ukrainian prosecutor-general Viktor Shokin to travel to the United States.

December 7, 2019 – After Giuliani returns from a trip to Ukraine, where he reportedly met with numerous former officials and filmed scenes for a TV show on the One America News Network, Trump announces that his personal lawyer is going to submit a report to Congress and the attorney general about his findings.

December 16, 2019 – The New Yorker publishes an article in which Giuliani is quoted saying the ouster of Yovanovitch was a key part of his effort to dig up dirt on Democrats on Trump’s behalf.

December 23, 2019 – New York magazine publishes an interview with Giuliani in which he accuses Jewish financier George Soros of appointing US ambassadors, employing FBI agents and being an enemy of Israel. Giuliani says his opposition to Soros is not rooted in anti-Semitism. “Soros is hardly a Jew,” says Giuliani. “I’m more of a Jew than Soros is.”

February 10, 2020 – US Attorney General William Barr confirms that the US Justice Department has been receiving information from Giuliani about his operation in Ukraine.

October 15, 2020 – The Washington Post reports that the White House was warned in 2019 that Giuliani “was being used to feed Russian misinformation” to the president. Citing conversations with four former officials familiar with the matter, the Post says that US intelligence agencies warned the White House that Giuliani “was the target of an influence operation by Russian intelligence” in which Trump was the intended recipient of the misinformation.

November 14, 2020 – Trump tweets that he has put Giuliani in charge of his campaign’s post-election legal challenges.

December 6, 2020 – Giuliani is admitted to Georgetown University Hospital after testing positive for Covid-19, a source familiar with the matter confirms to CNN. Earlier, Giuliani appeared to confirm his positive diagnosis, hours after it was announced on Twitter by Trump, by tweeting that he’s “getting great care and feeling good.” He leaves the hospital after four days.

January 25, 2021 – Election technology company Dominion Voting Systems files a lawsuit against Giuliani for $1.3 billion over his claims of election fraud.

April 29, 2021Federal agents execute a search warrant at Giuliani’s Manhattan apartment and office. Rober Costello, Giuliani’s attorney, said the warrant described an investigation into possible violation of foreign lobbying laws and that it sought communications between Giuliani and people including a former columnist for The Hill, John Solomon.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Same-Sex Marriage Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at same-sex marriage in the United States and worldwide.


According to Pew Research Center support for same-sex marriage in the United States has steadily increased over the last several years.

More than two dozen countries outside of the United States have laws allowing same-sex marriage. Most of these are in Europe and South America. Taiwan was the first country in Asia to legalize same-sex marriage.

US Timeline

September 21 1996 – President Bill Clinton signs the Defense of Marriage Act banning federal recognition of same-sex marriage and defining marriage as “a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife.”

December 3 1996 – A state court ruling makes Hawaii the first state to recognize that gay and lesbian couples are entitled to the same privileges as heterosexual married couples. The ruling is stayed and appealed the following day.

December 20 1999 – The Vermont Supreme Court rules that gay and lesbian couples should be given the same rights as heterosexual couples.

November 18 2003 – The Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that a ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.

February 12-March 11 2004 – Nearly 4000 same-sex couples get marriage licenses in San Francisco but the California Supreme Court eventually orders San Francisco to stop issuing marriage licenses. The nearly 4000 sanctioned marriages are later nullified by the California Supreme Court.

February 20 2004 – Sandoval County New Mexico issues 26 same-sex marriage licenses but they are nullified by the state attorney general the same day.

February 24 2004 – President George W. Bush announces support for a federal constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.

February 27 2004 – New Paltz New York Mayor Jason West performs same-sex marriages for about a dozen couples. In June the Ulster County Supreme Court issues West a permanent injunction against marrying same-sex couples.

March 3 2004 – In Portland Oregon the Multnomah County Clerk’s office issues marriage licenses for same-sex couples. Neighboring Benton County follows on March 24.

May 17 2004 Massachusetts legalizes same-sex marriage the first state in the United States to do so.

July 14 2004 – The US Senate blocks a proposed constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage from moving forward in Congress.

August 4 2004 – A Washington judge rules the state’s law defining marriage is unconstitutional.

September 30 2004 – The US House of Representatives votes against amending the Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage.

October 5 2004 – A Louisiana judge throws out an amendment to the state constitution banning same-sex marriage because the ban also includes civil unions. In 2005 the Louisiana State Supreme Court reinstates the constitutional amendment.

November 2 2004 – Eleven states pass constitutional amendments defining marriage as being between a man and a woman only: Arkansas Georgia Kentucky Michigan Mississippi Montana North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon and Utah.

March 14 2005 – A Superior Court judge rules that California’s law that limits marriage to a union between a man and a woman is unconstitutional.

April 14 2005 – Oregon’s Supreme Court nullifies the same-sex marriage licenses issued there in 2004.

May 12 2005 – A federal judge strikes down Nebraska’s ban on protection and recognition of same-sex couples.

September 6 2005 – The California Legislature passes a bill to legalize same-sex marriage. The legislature is the first in the United States to act without a court order to sanction same-sex marriages. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger later vetoes the bill.

September 14 2005 – The Massachusetts Legislature rejects a proposed amendment to its state constitution to ban same-sex marriages.

November 8 2005 – Texas becomes the 19th state to adopt a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.

January 20 2006 – A Maryland judge rules the state’s law defining marriage is unconstitutional.

March 30 2006 – The highest court in Massachusetts rules that same-sex couples who live in other states cannot get married in Massachusetts unless same-sex marriage is legal in their home states.

June 6 2006 – Alabama voters pass a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage.

July 6 2006 – The New York Court of Appeals rules that a state law banning same-sex marriage is legal and the Georgia Supreme Court upholds the state’s constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.

November 7 2006 – Constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage are on the ballot in eight states. Seven states: Colorado Idaho South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Virginia and Wisconsin pass theirs while Arizona voters reject the ban.

May 15 2008 – The California Supreme Court rules that the state’s ban on same-sex marriages is unconstitutional. The decision goes into effect on June 16 at 5:01 p.m.

October 10 2008 – The Connecticut Supreme Court in Hartford rules that the state must allow gay and lesbian couples to marry. Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Connecticut on November 12 2008.

November 4 2008 – Voters in California approve Proposition 8 which will amend the state’s constitution to ban same-sex marriage. Voters in Arizona and Florida also approve similar amendments to their state constitutions.

April 3 2009 – The Iowa Supreme Court strikes down a state law banning same-sex marriage. Marriages become legal in Iowa on April 27 2009.

April 7 2009 – Vermont legalizes same-sex marriages after both the state Senate and House of Representatives overturn a veto by Governor Jim Douglas. The Senate vote is 23-5 while the House vote is 100-49. Marriages become legal on September 1 2009.

May 6 2009 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Maine as Gov. John Baldacci signs a bill less than an hour after the state legislature approves it. Voters in Maine repeal the state’s law allowing same-sex marriage in November 2009.

May 6 2009 – New Hampshire lawmakers pass a same-sex marriage bill. Marriages will become legal on January 1 2010.

May 26 2009 – The California Supreme Court upholds the passage of Proposition 8 banning same-sex marriage. However 18000 such marriages performed before Proposition 8 will remain valid.

June 17 2009 – President Barack Obama signs a memorandum granting some benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees.

December 15 2009 – The city council of Washington DC votes to legalize same-sex marriage 11-2. Marriages become legal on March 9 2010.

July 9 2010 – Judge Joseph Tauro of Massachusetts rules that the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional because it interferes with a state’s right to define marriage.

August 4 2010 – Chief US District Judge Vaughn Walker from the United States District Court/Northern District of California decides that Proposition 8 is unconstitutional.

February 23 2011 – The Obama Administration instructs the Justice Department to stop defending the constitutionality of the Defense of Marriage Act in court.

June 24 2011 – The New York Senate votes to legalize same-sex marriage. Governor Andrew Cuomo signs the bill just before midnight.

September 30 2011 – The US Department of Defense issues new guidelines allowing military chaplains to perform same-sex ceremonies.

February 1 2012 – The Washington Senate passes a bill to legalize same-sex marriage by a vote of 28-21. On February 8 2012 the House approves the measure by a vote of 55-43. The bill is signed into law in Washington by Governor Christine Gregoire on February 13 2012.

February 7 2012 – A three-judge panel with the 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco rules that Proposition 8 the voter-approved same-sex marriage ban violates the constitution.

February 17 2012 – New Jersey Governor Chris Christie vetoes a bill legalizing same-sex marriage.

February 23 2012 – The Maryland Senate passes a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and Governor Martin O’Malley promises to sign it into law. The law goes into effect on January 1 2013.

May 8 2012 – North Carolina voters pass a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage putting a ban that already existed in state law into the state’s charter.

May 9 2012 – Excerpts from an interview with ABC air in which Obama endorses same-sex marriage the first such statement by a sitting president. He feels that the legal decision should be up to the states to determine.

May 31 2012 – The 1st US Circuit Court of Appeals in Boston rules that the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) discriminates against gay couples.

June 5 2012 – The 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals in San Francisco denies a request to review an earlier court decision stating that California’s Proposition 8 violates the Constitution. A stay on same-sex marriages in California remains in place until the issue is exhausted in the courts.

October 18 2012 – The 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals rules that the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) violates the Constitution’s equal protection clause deciding in favor of widow Edith Windsor an 83-year-old lesbian who sued the federal government for charging her more than $363000 in estate taxes after being denied the benefit of spousal deductions.

November 6 2012 – Voters in Maryland Washington and Maine pass referendums legalizing same-sex marriage. This is the first time same-sex marriage has been approved by a popular vote in the United States. Voters in Minnesota reject a ban on the issue.

December 5 2012 – Washington Governor Christine Gregoire signs Referendum 74 the Marriage Equality Act into law. Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Washington the following day.

December 7 2012 – The US Supreme Court announces it will hear two constitutional challenges to state and federal laws dealing with the recognition of gay and lesbian couples to legally wed. Oral arguments in the appeal are held in March 2013 with a ruling expected by late June.

January 25 2013 – The Rhode Island House of Representatives passes a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. On May 2 2013 Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee signs the bill legalizing the marriages after the state legislature approves the measure and the law goes into effect in August 2013.

May 7 2013 – Delaware legalizes same-sex marriage. It goes into effect July 1 2013.

May 14 2013 – Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton signs a bill giving same-sex couples the right to marry. The law goes into effect in August 1 2013.

June 26 2013 – The Supreme Court rejects parts of DOMA in a 5-4 decision dismissing an appeal over same-sex marriage on jurisdictional grounds and ruling same-sex spouses legally married in a state may receive federal benefits. It also rules that private parties do not have “standing” to defend California’s voter-approved ballot measure barring gay and lesbian couples from state-sanctioned wedlock. The ruling clears the way for same-sex marriages in California to resume.

August 1 2013 – Laws in Rhode Island and Minnesota to legalize same-sex marriage go into effect at midnight.

August 29 2013 – The US Treasury Department rules that legally married same-sex couples will be treated as married for tax purposes even if they live in a state that does not recognize same-sex marriage.

September 27 2013 – A New Jersey state judge rules that same-sex couples must be permitted to marry in New Jersey starting October 21. The ruling says that the parallel label “civil unions” which the state already allows is illegally preventing same-sex couples from getting federal benefits.

October 10 2013 – New Jersey Superior Court Judge Mary Jacobson denies the state’s appeal to halt same-sex marriages. On October 21 same-sex couples are legally allowed to marry.

November 13 2013 – Governor Neil Abercrombie signs legislation making Hawaii the 15th state to legalize same-sex marriage. The law takes effect on December 2 2013.

November 20 2013 – Illinois becomes the 16th state to legalize same-sex marriage when Governor Pat Quinn signs the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act into law. The law will go into effect on June 1 2014.

November 27 2013 – Pat Ewert and Venita Gray become the first same-sex couple to marry in Illinois. Gray’s battle with cancer prompted the couple to seek relief from a federal court to immediately receive a license before the law goes into effect in June. Gray dies March 18 2014. On February 21 2014 an Illinois federal judge rules that other same-sex couples in Cook County can marry immediately.

December 19 2013 – The New Mexico Supreme Court unanimously rules to allow same-sex marriage statewide and orders county clerks to begin issuing marriage licenses to qualified same-sex couples.

December 20 2013 – A federal judge in Utah declares the state ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional.

December 24 2013 – The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals denies a request from Utah officials to temporarily stay a lower court’s ruling that allows same-sex marriage there. The ruling allows same-sex marriages to continue while the appeal goes forward.

January 6 2014 – The Supreme Court temporarily blocks same-sex marriage in Utah sending the matter back to an appeals court. Days later State officials in Utah announce that the more than 1000 same-sex marriages performed in the three weeks prior will not be recognized.

January 14 2014 – An Oklahoma federal court rules the state ban on same-sex marriage is “an arbitrary irrational exclusion of just one class of Oklahoma citizens from a governmental benefit.” Anticipating an appeal US Senior District Judge Terence Kern puts in place a stay pending the outcome of the Utah appeal so same-sex couples in Oklahoma cannot immediately marry.

February 10 2014 – Attorney General Eric Holder issues a memo stating “the (Justice) department will consider a marriage valid for purposes of the marital privilege if an individual is or was validly married in a jurisdiction authorized to sanction marriages regardless of whether the marriage is or would have been recognized in the state where the married individuals reside or formerly resided or where the civil or criminal action has been brought.”

February 12 2014 – US District Judge John G. Heyburn II rules that Kentucky’s denial of recognition for valid same-sex marriages violates the United States Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection under the law.

February 13 2014 – US District Judge Arenda L. Wright Allen strikes down Virginia’s ban on same-sex marriage.

February 26 2014 – US District Judge Orlando Garcia strikes down Texas’ ban on same-sex marriage ruling it has no “rational relation to a legitimate government purpose.”

March 14 2014 – A federal preliminary injunction is ordered against Tennessee’s ban on recognizing same-sex marriages from other states.

March 21 2014 – US District Judge Bernard Friedman rules that the Michigan Marriage Amendment which bans same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette files an emergency request for Judge Friedman’s order to be stayed and appealed.

April 14 2014 – District Judge Timothy Black orders Ohio to recognize same-sex marriages from other states.

May 9 2014 – An Arkansas state judge declares the state’s voter-approved same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional.

May 13 2014 – Magistrate Judge Candy Wagahoff Dale rules that the Idaho ban on gay marriage is unconstitutional. An appeal is filed. The following day the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals responds to the appeal and issues a temporary stay against same-sex marriage in Idaho. In October 2014 the Supreme Court lifts the stay.

May 16 2014 – The Arkansas Supreme Court issues an emergency stay as its judges consider an appeal to the state judge’s ruling on same-sex marriage.

May 19 2014 – A federal judge strikes down Oregon’s ban on same-sex marriage.

May 20 2014 – District Judge John E. Jones strikes down Pennsylvania’s ban on same-sex marriage.

June 6 2014 – A Wisconsin federal judge strikes down the state’s same-sex marriage ban. Within days Wisconsin Attorney General J.B. Van Hollen files a petition with the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals to halt same-sex marriages in the state.

June 13 2014 – District Judge Barbara Crabb temporarily blocks same-sex marriages in Wisconsin pending appeals.

June 25 2014 – An appeals court strikes down Utah’s ban on same-sex marriage.

June 25 2014 – District Judge Richard Young strikes down Indiana’s same-sex marriage ban.

July 9 2014 – A state judge in Colorado strikes down Colorado’s ban on same-sex marriage. However the judge prevents couples from immediately marrying by staying his decision.

July 11 2014 – A federal appeals court rules that about 1300 same-sex marriages performed earlier this year must be recognized by Utah.

July 18 2014 – The Supreme Court grants Utah’s request for a delay in recognizing same-sex marriages performed in late 2013 and early 2014.

July 18 2014 – The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals upholds a judge’s ruling from January 2014 that the same-sex marriage ban in Oklahoma is unconstitutional. The panel stays the ruling pending appeal from the state.

July 23 2014 – A federal judge rules that Colorado’s ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. The judge stays implementation of the ruling pending appeals.

July 28 2014 – A federal appeals court strikes down Virginia’s ban on same-sex marriage. The 4th Circuit opinion also will affect marriage laws in other states within its jurisdiction including West Virginia North Carolina and South Carolina. Separate orders will have to be issued for affected states in the region outside Virginia.

August 20 2014 – The Supreme Court grants a request to delay enforcement of an appeals court ruling that overturned Virginia’s same-sex marriage ban.

August 21 2014 – District Judge Robert Hinkle rules Florida’s same-sex marriage ban to be unconstitutional but same-sex marriages cannot immediately be performed.

September 3 2014 – Judge Martin L. C. Feldman upholds Louisiana’s ban on same-sex marriages breaking a streak of 21 consecutive federal court decisions overturning the bans since June 2013.

October 6 2014 – The US Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals from five states — Indiana Oklahoma Utah Virginia and Wisconsin — seeking to keep their same-sex marriage bans in place. Therefore same-sex marriage becomes legal in those states.

October 7 2014 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Colorado and Indiana.

October 7 2014 – The 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals in California concludes bans on same-sex marriage in Nevada and Idaho violate the equal protection rights of same-sex couples to legally marry.

October 9 2014 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Nevada and West Virginia.

October 10 2014 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in North Carolina.

October 17 2014 – Judge John Sedwick rules that Arizona’s ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional and refuses to stay his ruling. The same day Attorney General Eric Holder announces that federal legal recognition of same-sex marriages extends to Indiana Oklahoma Utah Virginia and Wisconsin. Also the US Supreme Court rejects Alaska’s request to delay enforcement of the court’s ruling on same-sex marriage. Less than an hour later a federal judge in Wyoming did the same in that Western state.

November 4 2014 – A federal judge rules that Kansas’ ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional. He puts the ruling on hold until November 11 to give the state time to file an appeal.

November 6 2014 – The US Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit upholds bans on same-sex marriages in Michigan Ohio Kentucky and Tennessee.

November 12 2014 – A South Carolina federal judge strikes down the state’s ban on same-sex marriage delaying the effective date until November 20 allowing time for an appeal by the state’s attorney general.

November 19 2014 – A federal judge overturns Montana’s same-sex marriage ban. The order is effective immediately.

January 5 2015 – The US Supreme Court denies Florida’s petition to extend the stay on allowing same-sex marriages. Couples are free to marry as the case continues through the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals.

January 12 2015 – A federal judge rules South Dakota’s ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional but stays the ruling.

January 23 2015 – A federal court judge rules in favor of the freedom to marry in Alabama for same-sex couples but stays the ruling.

January 27 2015 – Federal Judge Callie Granade rules to strike down the same-sex marriage ban in a second case involving an unmarried same-sex couple in Alabama but stays her ruling for 14 days.

February 8 2015 – Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore instructs probate judges not to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

February 9 2015 – Some Alabama probate judges including in Montgomery County begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Others follow the instructions of Moore.

February 12 2015 – Judge Granade instructs Probate Judge Don Davis of Mobile County Alabama to issue same-sex marriage licenses.

March 2 2015 – US District Court Judge Joseph Bataillon strikes down Nebraska’s same-sex marriage ban effective March 9. The state immediately appeals the ruling but Bataillon denies a stay.

March 3 2015 – The Alabama Supreme Court orders probate judges to discontinue issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. The judges have five business days to respond to the order.

March 5 2015 – The 8th Circuit Court of Appeals issues a stay on Judge Batallion’s ruling. The ban on same-sex marriage will remain in effect through the state’s appeals process.

April 28 2015 – The US Supreme Court hears arguments in the case Obergefell v. Hodges. The Courts ruling will decide whether states can constitutionally ban same-sex marriage.

June 26 2015 – The Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples can marry nationwide. In the 5-4 ruling Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote for the majority with the four liberal justices. Each of the four conservative justices wrote their own dissent.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Bernard Shaw Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the life of Bernard Shaw, acclaimed journalist and one of the first CNN anchors.


Birth date: May 22, 1940

Birth place: Chicago, Illinois

Birth name: Bernard Shaw

Father: Edgar Shaw, a railroad employee and house painter

Mother: Camilla (Murphy) Shaw, a housekeeper

Marriages: Linda Allston (March 30, 1974-present)

Children: Amar Edgar, Anil Louise

Education: University of Illinois at Chicago, B.A., History, 1966

Military Service: US Marine Corps (1959-1963)

Other Facts

Before CNN, Shaw worked for CBS as a political reporter from 1971 to 1977, and for ABC as a Latin America correspondent from 1977 to 1979.

He was one of the “Boys of Baghdad,” who covered the beginning of the Persian Gulf War on January 16, 1991, from a hotel room in Baghdad, with Peter Arnett and John Holliman.

Shaw covered live some of the biggest stories in recent history, including the student revolt in Tiananmen Square in May 1989, the 1994 California earthquake, the 1997 death of Princess Diana and the 2000 presidential election.


June 1, 1980-February 28, 2001 – Reports for CNN.

October 13, 1988 – Moderates the second presidential debate between George H. W. Bush and Michael Dukakis.

April 27, 1991 – University of Illinois Foundation establishes the Bernard Shaw Endowment Fund, creating scholarships at the Chicago campus.

July 1991Receives the Eduard Rhein Foundation’s Cultural Journalistic Award, the first time that the award is presented to a non-German.

1999 – Shaw is Inducted into the Broadcasting & Cable Hall of Fame.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Larry King Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the life of talk-show host Larry King, who conducted more than 30,000 interviews, including with sitting presidents from Gerald Ford to Barack Obama.


Birth date: November 19, 1933

Death date: January 23, 2021

Birth place: Brooklyn, New York

Birth name: Lawrence Harvey Zeiger

Father: Edward Zeiger, a restaurant owner

Mother: Jennie (Gitlitz) Zeiger

Marriages: Shawn Southwick (1997-January 23, 2021, his death, had filed for divorce in 2019); Julie Alexander (1989-1992, divorced); Sharon Lepore (1976-1983, divorced); Alene Akins (1967-1971, divorced); Mickey Sutphin (1964-1966, divorced); Alene Akins (1961-1963, divorced); Annette Kaye (divorced); Freda Miller (divorced)

Children: with Shawn Southwick: Cannon, Chance and Danny Southwick (stepson); with Alene Akins: Andy and Chaia; with Mickey Sutphin: Kelly; with Annette Kaye: Larry Jr.

Other Facts

Surviving heart problems, including several heart attacks and quintuple bypass surgery in 1987, led King to establish the Larry King Cardiac Foundation to help those without insurance afford medical treatment.

His marriage to Shawn Southwick took place at UCLA Medical Center as King was being admitted for chest pains and just before undergoing cardiac surgery.

Appeared as himself in numerous films and television programs and published over twenty books including his autobiography, a novel and a children’s book with one of his daughters.

Hosted a podcast with his wife Shawn, “Back and Forth with Shawn and Larry King.”

Nominated for eight News and Documentary Emmy Awards and won two. King was also presented with a lifetime achievement award in 2011.

King was arrested in 1971 for grand larceny but was never prosecuted due to the statute of limitations. The trouble started when financier Lou Wolfson gave King $5,000 to give to Jim Garrison, who was investigating the John F. Kennedy assassination. King allegedly spent the money. The scandal led to King losing his job at the radio station WIOD in Miami.


1957 – After changing his last name from Zeiger to King, begins a radio career as a disc jockey at WAHR-AM in Miami.

1958-1961 – Hosts a live audience interview show at Pumpernik’s Restaurant in Miami.

1965 – Is hired as a columnist for the Miami Herald to replace Walter Winchell.

December 1971- Is arrested in Miami on charges of grand larceny.

1972-1975 – Leaves Florida and becomes a freelance writer and broadcaster in Louisiana. Also does public relations work for a racetrack.

1978 – Returns to Miami and to WIOD radio. King joins the Miami News as a columnist and returns to TV as an interviewer.

January 30, 1978 – “The Larry King Show,” a nationally syndicated late-night radio talk show, debuts in 28 cities. In five years it is in 118 cities.

1982 – King’s first column appears in USA Today and “The Larry King Show” wins a Peabody Award.

April 1982 – Wins a News and Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in a Craft: Writer for “The Best Little Statehouse in Texas.”

June 3, 1985 – Larry King Live premieres on CNN.

1988 – Establishes the Larry King Cardiac Foundation to help those in need afford treatment.

1989 – Is inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame.

1992 – Is inducted into Broadcasting Hall of Fame.

February 20, 1992 – Ross Perot announces his bid for in the 1992 presidential election on Larry King Live.

1992 – Larry King Live Election Coverage 1992 wins a Peabody Award.

November 9, 1993 – Vice President Al Gore and Perot appear on Larry King Live to discuss NAFTA.

January 14, 1998 – Interviews death row inmate Karla Faye Tucker at the Mountain View Unit, Texas Department of Corrections.

September 1999 – Wins a News and Documentary Emmy for Outstanding Interview/Interviewer for the show with Tucker.

September 24, 2001 – His last column appears in USA Today.

April 2003 – His novel, “Moon Over Manhattan: Mystery & Mayhem,” is published.

2007 – Fiftieth year in broadcasting.

July 11, 2008 – The intersection of Sunset and Cahuenga Boulevards is renamed Larry King Square. The CNN Los Angeles bureau is located there.

May 2009 – His autobiography, “My Remarkable Journey,” is published.

June 29, 2010 – Announces his decision to retire from Larry King Live after 25 years.

December 16, 2010 – The final show of Larry King Live airs.

April 14, 2011 – “Larry King: Stand Up,” the first in a series of one-man comedy shows, opens in Torrington, Connecticut.

September 26, 2011 – King receives a lifetime achievement award at the News and Documentary Emmy Awards in New York.

July 16, 2012 – Online series “Larry King Now” debuts on Ora TV.

October 23, 2012 – Moderates the third-party presidential debate in Chicago.

May 29, 2013 – A Russian-owned news channel, RT, announces King will host “Larry King Now” on their network RT America beginning in June.

September 8, 2016 – Conducts an interview with Donald Trump that is distributed to RT. The segment stirs controversy because of his campaign’s alleged ties to Russia and ends in silence when Trump is asked about his feelings on Mexican immigrants. “I don’t know what happened there, we did not lose the connection, so something happened,” King says on the show. The next day, King tells Erin Burnett that Trump’s team apologized to producers after ending the interview.

September 13, 2017 – King announces that he was diagnosed with stage 1 lung cancer in July 2017 and that he underwent surgery the same month to remove the malignant tissue.

April 29, 2019 – In a statement, Ora TV says that King is recovering after undergoing a procedure to address chest pain. According to the statement, King’s doctor “successfully performed the angioplasty and inserted stents to reopen the previous bypass from 1987.”

May 22, 2020 – King announces he is launching a celebrity interview podcast called “The Millionth Question” with his son, Chance, and producer Jeff Beacher.

July 28, 2020 – King’s son, Andy, dies.

August 2020 – King’s daughter, Chaia, dies after battling lung cancer.

January 2021 – According to a source close to the King family, King has been hospitalized with Covid-19.

January 23, 2021 – King’s son, Chance, confirms that King has died at age 87.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Michael Skakel Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the life of Michael Skakel, the nephew of Ethel Kennedy. Skakel was convicted in 2002 of the 1975 murder of his neighbor, Martha Moxley. Skakel ‘s conviction was vacated by the Connecticut Supreme Court in 2018. In October 2020, the Connecticut State’s Attorney announced they will not retry Skakel.


Birth date: September 19, 1960

Birth place: Greenwich, Connecticut

Birth name: Michael Skakel

Father: Rushton Skakel Sr.

Mother: Anne Skakel

Marriage: Margot Sheridan (1991-2001, divorced)

Children: George, 1999

Education: Curry College, Milton, Massachusetts, B.A., 1993

Other Facts

Both Skakel and victim Martha Moxley were 15 years old at the time, and lived near each other in Greenwich, Connecticut.

His older brother, Tommy, and their live-in tutor, Kenneth Littleton, were also suspects.

Prosecutors claimed Skakel killed Moxley in a jealous rage.

Dominick Dunne’s bestselling 1993 novel “A Season in Purgatory” is based on the case.


October 30, 1975 Martha Moxley fails to return home after her evening out concludes with a stop at the Skakel home to visit Tommy and Michael Skakel, Kennedy nephews by marriage.

October 31, 1975 Martha’s body is discovered. She is believed to have been beaten to death with a golf club, which is found near her body. Tommy Skakel is questioned by the police.

1978 – Michael Skakel is charged with drunken driving. To sidestep a prosecution, Skakel family attorneys work out a deal with police: Skakel will go to the Elan School in Poland Spring, Maine, to be treated for alcohol addiction and the state will not pursue the charges.

1994 Skakel works as an aide to Sen. Edward Kennedy’s reelection campaign.

1998 Two books based on the crime are published – “Greentown,” by Timothy Dumas, and “Murder in Greenwich,” by Mark Fuhrman.

June 1998 Superior Court Judge George Thim begins an 18-month one-person grand jury review of information gathered by investigators.

January 19, 2000 An arrest warrant for an unnamed individual is issued in the Moxley murder. Later the same day, Skakel surrenders to police and is released on $500,000 bond.

June 21, 2000 At a pre-trial hearing, two of Skakel’s former classmates at the Elan School in Maine testify that he had confessed to them back in the 1970s, “I’m gonna get away with murder. I’m a Kennedy.”

May 7, 2002 Testimony begins in the case.

June 7, 2002 Skakel is convicted.

August 29, 2002 – Skakel is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison.

November 24, 2003 Attorneys file an appeal, seeking to overturn his murder conviction.

January 13, 2006 The conviction is upheld by the Connecticut Supreme Court.

November 13, 2006 The US Supreme Court declines to hear Skakel’s appeal, meaning his conviction stands.

April 17, 2007 Skakel’s petition for a new trial is filed. Former high school classmate Gitano “Tony” Bryant says two of his friends were involved in the murder, not Skakel.

October 25, 2007 The petition for new trial is denied as the judge finds statements not credible that Bryant and his two friends, all African-American, could go unnoticed in the mostly white neighborhood.

November 6, 2007 Skakel’s lawyers file a writ of habeas corpus and petition for a new trial in federal district court.

September 27, 2010 Skakel’s lawyers file a new appeal claiming that his trial attorney, Mickey Sherman, was incompetent in that he failed to obtain evidence from prosecuting attorneys pointing to other suspects, and that Sherman’s own financial problems drew his focus away from the case. Sherman had pleaded guilty in June to failing to pay $400,000 in federal income taxes.

February 8, 2011 Skakel testifies in his appeal hearing, the fourth attempt at overturning his conviction.

March 6, 2012 – His appeal is denied by a three-judge panel of the Connecticut Supreme Court.

October 24, 2012 Skakel is denied parole by the state parole board in Suffield, Connecticut.

October 23, 2013 – A Connecticut Appellate judge orders a new trial for Skakel, saying defense attorney Mickey Sherman’s representation of Skakel was “constitutionally deficient.”

November 21, 2013 – Skakel is released after his bail is posted. Superior Court Judge Gary White sets several conditions for the bail, including barring Skakel from leaving Connecticut without court approval, ordering him to wear a GPS tracking device and requiring that he report to a bail commissioner.

August 8, 2014 – Prosecutors file an appeal to reinstate Skakel’s conviction of killing Moxley in 1975. If the appeal fails, prosecutors state they will retry Skakel.

December 30, 2016 – The Connecticut Supreme Court reinstates Skakel’s 2002 murder conviction in a 4-3 decision, reversing the Appellate court’s order for a new trial in 2013. The final version of the court’s decision is released on May 8, 2017.

January 6, 2017 – Skakel’s attorneys file a motion to reconsider the ruling of the Connecticut Supreme Court and requesting a seven-member court panel hear the motion to ensure a “full and fair determination.” The argument raises an unprecedented issue, as the judge who authored the majority decision retired from the court and cannot participate in any future decisions.

May 4, 2018 – The Connecticut Supreme Court vacates Skakel’s conviction. Prosecutors can choose to retry Skakel, but had no comment immediately following the decision.

August 8, 2018 – Connecticut files a petition with the US Supreme Court to review the decision by Connecticut’s high court to vacate Skakel’s conviction based on inadequate assistance of counsel. Skakel files a brief in response to Connecticut’s petition approximately three months later.

January 7, 2019 – The US Supreme Court denies Connecticut’s petition for review.

July 24, 2020 – Federal Judge Michael Shea rules that Connecticut officials cannot keep judicial records and court proceedings secret for cases involving teenagers charged with major felonies, a ruling that will reopen Skakel’s case to the public if he is retried.

October 30, 2020Chief State’s Attorney Richard Colangelo Jr. announces that prosecutors for the state of Connecticut will not retry Skakel for the death of Moxley. Addressing the Stamford Superior Court, Colangelo confirms that after “Looking at the evidence, your honor, looking at the state of the case, it is my belief that the state cannot prove this case beyond a reasonable doubt.”