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CNN-National & Wolrd

US Open Tennis Tournament Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the US Open Tennis Tournament.

It is held annually at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing, New York. It is the only Grand Slam tennis championship held in North America.

August 31-September 13, 2020 – The US Open Tennis Tournament takes place. Naomi Osaka defeats Victoria Azarenka and Dominic Thiem defeats Alexander Zverev, becoming the first player in the Open Era to rally from two sets down and win.

August 26-September 8, 2019 – The US Open Tennis Tournament takes place. Bianca Andreescu defeats Serena Williams and Rafael Nadal wins his fourth US Open title by defeating Daniil Medvedev.

Other Facts

The US Open is one of four “Grand Slam” tournaments, along with the Australian Open, Wimbledon and the French Open.

Matches are in five categories: men’s singles and doubles, women’s singles and doubles, and mixed doubles.

Since 1978, the matches have been played on a hard-court surface covered with “DecoTurf” artificial grass.

The total prize money compensation for 2020 is $53,402,000. $3 million is awarded to the men’s and women’s singles champions.

Playing in Most Singles Finals

Bill Tilden (men’s) – 10 – (1918-25, 1927, 1929)

Molla B. Mallory (women’s) – 10 – (1915-18, 1920-24, 1926)

Playing in Most Doubles Finals

Fred B. Alexander – 10 – (1900, 1905-11, 1917-18)

Margaret Osbourne duPont – 15 – (1941-50, 1953-57)

Winner of Most Men’s Singles Championships

Pre-1968 – Richard Sears, Bill Tilden, Bill Larned (tied with 7)

Post-1968 – Jimmy Connors, Pete Sampras, Roger Federer (tied with 5)

Winner of Most Women’s Singles Championships

Pre-1968 – Molla B. Mallory (8)

Post-1968 – Chris Evert, Serena Williams (tied with 6)

Timeline

1881 – Begins as a men’s tournament open only to members of the US National Lawn Tennis Association. The competition is held at the Newport Casino in Rhode Island. Richard Sears is the first champion.

1887Ellen Hansel is the first female singles winner.

1968 – The “Open Era” begins, as professionals are allowed to compete with amateurs. The name of the competition changes from the US Championships to the US Open. The first US Open singles champions are Arthur Ashe and Virginia Wade.

1973 – The US Open becomes the first Grand Slam tournament to offer equal prize money to male and female winners.

1978 – The National Tennis Center at Flushing Meadows Corona Park becomes the site of the US Open.

1997 The stadium used for the tournament inside the USTA National Tennis Center is named Arthur Ashe Stadium.

2006 – The USTA National Tennis Center facility is renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center.

2016 – A retractable roof is added to the Arthur Ashe Stadium and a new grandstand stadium is built at the USTA Tennis Center for the 2016 tournament. The additions are part of ongoing renovations announced in 2013.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

Flight 93 National Memorial Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Flight 93 National Memorial. It is a memorial to the 40 passengers and crew who died on United Flight 93 on September 11 2001 near Shanksville Pennsylvania.

Facts

The memorial site is managed by the National Park Service. The memorial encompasses 2200 acres and the “Tower of Voices” a 93-foot-tall tower with 40 wind chimes.

Features include the Memorial Plaza 40 Memorial Groves and the Allée a formal walking path.

Timeline

September 11 2001 – United Airlines Flight 93 traveling from Newark New Jersey to San Francisco crashes in a field near Shanksville Pennsylvania. Hijackers were directing the plane towards Washington DC but were disrupted by passengers. All passengers crew and four hijackers are killed.

September 24 2002The Flight 93 National Memorial Act is passed creating the country’s 386th national park.

September 7 2005 – A design by Paul Murdoch Architects of Los Angeles “The Crescent of Embrace” is chosen for the memorial. A committee of 15 people including family members of the victims chose it out of more than 1000 entries.

August 31 2009 – Interior Secretary Ken Salazar announces the National Park Service has reached agreements with seven of eight landowners to purchase the land necessary for the memorial at an estimated $9.5 million. The eighth parcel owned by Svonavec Inc. will be taken by eminent domain after an agreement cannot be reached. This parcel includes most of the crash site.

November 7 2009The groundbreaking ceremony at the memorial site takes place.

September 10 2011 – The first features of the Flight 93 National Memorial are dedicated and opened to the public. Vice President Joe Biden attends the ceremony.

September 11 2011 – President Barack Obama participates in commemorations at the memorial site.

May 30 2012 – The National Park Service completes the planting of the 40 Memorial Groves.

April 2013 – More than 500 volunteers plant 15500 seedlings across 23 acres. Trees planted for reforestation in the area will serve as a windbreak for the trees in the Memorial Groves.

October 3 2014 – A fire breaks out at the memorial destroying the headquarters complex. Although most of the 60000 tribute items are stored off-site important items including the flag that flew over the US Capitol on September 11 2001 are destroyed. No initial cause of the fire is determined but arson and foul play are ruled out.

February 6 2016 – The National Park Service releases a report with the findings of its investigation into the 2014 fire. Improperly discarded smoking material (possibly a cigarette) landscaping mulch too close to the building and flammable decking material may have fueled the fire but investigators were unable to determine exactly how the blaze started. More than 300 photographs and 25 personal mementos were lost in the fire.

September 9 2018 – The National Park Service hosts the official dedication ceremony of the Tower of Voices.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

September 11 Hijackers Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s some background information about the 19 hijackers of September 11 2001.

Timeline

September 11 2001 – Nineteen men hijack four commercial airlines loaded with fuel for cross country flights to carry out a terrorist attack on the United States orchestrated by al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

— 8:46 a.m. ET (approx.) – American Airlines Flight 11 (traveling from Boston to Los Angeles) strikes the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The plane is piloted by plot leader Mohamed Atta.

— 9:03 a.m. ET (approx.) – United Airlines Flight 175 (traveling from Boston to Los Angeles) strikes the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The plane is piloted by hijacker Marwan al Shehhi.

— 9:37 a.m. ET (approx.) – American Airlines Flight 77 (traveling from Dulles Virginia to Los Angeles) strikes the Pentagon Building in Washington. The plane is piloted by hijacker Hani Hanjour.

— 10:03 a.m. ET (approx.) – United Airlines Flight 93 (traveling from Newark New Jersey to San Francisco) crashes in a field in Shanksville Pennsylvania. The plane is piloted by hijacker Ziad Jarrah.

Hijackers by Airplane

American Airlines Flight 11
Mohamed Atta – Egypt tactical leader of 9/11 plot and pilot
Abdul Aziz al Omari – Saudi Arabia
Wail al Shehri – Saudi Arabia
Waleed al Shehri – Saudi Arabia
Satam al Suqami – Saudi Arabia

United Airlines Flight 175
Fayez Banihammad – United Arab Emirates
Ahmed al Ghamdi – Saudi Arabia
Hamza al Ghamdi – Saudi Arabia
Marwan al Shehhi – United Arab Emirates pilot
Mohand al Shehri – Saudi Arabia

American Airlines Flight 77
Hani Hanjour – Saudi Arabia pilot
Nawaf al Hazmi – Saudi Arabia
Salem al Hazmi – Saudi Arabia
Khalid al Mihdhar – Saudi Arabia
Majed Moqed – Saudi Arabia

United Airlines Flight 93
Saeed al Ghamdi – Saudi Arabia
Ahmad al Haznawi – Saudi Arabia
Ziad Jarrah – Lebanon pilot
Ahmed al Nami – Saudi Arabia

Hijackers by Nationality

Egypt
Mohamed Atta

Lebanon
Ziad Jarrah

Saudi Arabia
Ahmed al Ghamdi
Hamza al Ghamdi
Saeed al Ghamdi
Hani Hanjour
Nawaf al Hazmi
Salem al Hazmi
Ahmad al Haznawi
Ahmed al Nami
Khalid al Mihdhar
Majed Moqed
Abdul Aziz al Omari
Mohand al Shehri
Wail al Shehri
Waleed al Shehri
Satam al Suqami

United Arab Emirates
Fayez Banihammad
Marwan al Shehhi

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CNN-National & Wolrd

September 11 Congressional Report Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the 9/11 Congressional Report, released by Congress on July 24, 2003.

Facts

The full name of the report is the Report of the Joint Inquiry into the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 by the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.

The report is a result of a 10-month joint investigation by House and Senate intelligence committees. The report was completed in December 2002, but not published until July 2003 because of declassification.

The report is more than 800 pages, and there is a 20-page errata to the report which shows corrections made to the original. Twenty-eight pages discussing Saudi Arabia’s alleged connections to the 19 hijackers remained classified until July 15, 2016.

The report is the product of 5,000 interviews and a review of nearly one million documents.

The report includes some 19 recommendations to bolster counterterrorism efforts.

Findings of the report

FBI, CIA and other US intelligence agencies “missed opportunities” to thwart terrorism prior to September 11, 2001.

Although senior military officials were standing ready to strike al Qaeda terrorist Osama bin Laden prior to 9/11, they lacked the intelligence necessary for execution.

“No one will ever know what might have happened had more connections been drawn between these disparate pieces of information,” the report states. “The important point is that the intelligence community, for a variety of reasons, did not bring together and fully appreciate a range of information that could have greatly enhanced its chances of uncovering and preventing bin Laden’s plan to attack the United States on September 11, 2001.”

From “Abridged Findings and Conclusions”

Finding 1: “While the Intelligence Community had amassed a great deal of valuable intelligence regarding bin Laden and his terrorist activities, none of it identified the time, place, and specific nature of the attacks that were planned for September 11, 2001. Nonetheless, the Community did have information that was clearly relevant to the September 11 attacks, particularly when considered for its collective significance.”

Finding 2: “During the spring and summer of 2001, the Intelligence Community experienced a significant increase in information indicating that bin Laden and al-Qaeda intended to strike against US interests in the very near future.”

Finding 3: “Beginning in 1998 and continuing into the summer of 2001, the Intelligence Community received a modest, but relatively steady, stream of intelligence reporting that indicated the possibility of terrorist attacks within the United States. Nonetheless, testimony and interviews confirm that it was the general view of the Intelligence Community, in the spring and summer of 2001, that the threatened bin Laden attacks would most likely occur against US interests overseas, despite indications of plans and intentions to attack in the domestic United States.”

Finding 4: “From at least 1994, and continuing into the summer of 2001, the Intelligence Community received information indicating that terrorists were contemplating, among other means of attack, the use of aircraft as weapons. This information did not stimulate any specific Intelligence Community assessment of, or collective US Government reaction to, this form of threat.”

Finding 5: “Although relevant information that is significant in retrospect regarding the attacks was available to the Intelligence Community prior to September 11, 2001, the Community too often failed to focus on that information and consider and appreciate its collective significance in terms of a probable terrorist attack. Neither did the Intelligence Community demonstrate sufficient initiative in coming to grips with the new transnational threats. Some significant piece of information in the vast stream of data being collected were overlooked, some were not recognized as potentially significant at the time and therefore not disseminated, and some required additional action on the part of foreign governments before a direct connection to the hijackers could have been established. For all those reasons, the Intelligence Community failed to fully capitalize on available and potentially important information.”

Findings from pages declassified July 15, 2016

“While in the United States, some of the September 11 hijackers were in contact with, and received support or assistance from, individuals who may be connected to the Saudi Government. There is information, from FBI sources, that at least two of those individuals were alleged to be Saudi intelligence officers. The Joint Inquiry’s review confirmed that the Intelligence Community also has information, much of which remains speculative and yet to be independently verified, indicating that Saudi Government officials in the United States may have other ties to al-Qaeda (al-Qa’ida) and other terrorist groups.”

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September 11 Commission Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the 9/11 Commission, whose report was released on July 22, 2004.

Facts

The Commission was created to provide a “complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.”

The official name of the 9/11 Commission is the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States.

The 570-page, 14-chapter report concluded that a “failure of imagination” kept US officials from understanding the al Qaeda threat before the attacks on New York and Washington.

The report included 41 recommendations for reforming US security agencies to fight terrorism.

The report called for a single national intelligence chief and a single counterterrorism center modeled on the military’s unified commands. It also proposed the creation of a single, joint congressional committee to oversee homeland security.

The purpose of the commission was to investigate US counterterrorism policy from August 1998 to September 11, 2001.

Budget for the Commission totaled $15 million.

It originally had 18 months to report, or no later than May 27, 2004, but Congress and the President extended the reporting deadline by two months, to July 26, 2004.

The Commission had nearly 80 full-time employees, contractors and employees on staff.

President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney agreed to meet with commission chair and vice chair only.

The Commission said it had access to all documents and interviews it requested.

“We’ve gotten everything we’ve asked for, but always after a lot of resistance and criticism,” said member Slade Gorton.

It issued three subpoenas for information, but these were resolved without litigation. The subpoenas went to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Department of Defense and the City of New York.

The Commission reviewed more than two million pages of documents.

The Commission’s 10 Members

Thomas H. Kean, Chair – former governor of New Jersey (1982-1990)

Lee H. Hamilton, Vice Chair – former Congressman

Richard Ben-Veniste – Attorney and former chief of the Watergate Task Force, Special Prosecutor’s Office

Fred F. Fielding – Has served on several commissions, including Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform (1989)

Jamie S. Gorelick – Served on the CIA’s National Security Advisory Panel

Slade Gorton – Senator from Washington State from 1981-1987 and 1989-2001

Bob Kerrey – Senator for Nebraska from 1988-2000 and Nebraska Governor from 1983-1987

John F. Lehman – Chairman of J.F. Lehman & Company, a private equity investment firm and former Secretary of the Navy from 1981-1987

Timothy J. Roemer – President of the Center for National Policy and Representative to Congress from Indiana 1991-2003

James R. Thompson – Illinois’ longest serving governor, from 1977-1991

The Commission’s Eight Topics

Al Qaeda and the Organization of the 9-11 Attack

Intelligence Collection, Analysis, and Management (including oversight and resource allocation)

International Counterterrorism Policy, including states that harbor or harbored terrorists, or offer terrorists safe havens

Terrorist Financing

Border Security and Foreign Visitors

Law Enforcement and Intelligence Collection inside the United States

Commercial Aviation and Transportation Security, including an Investigation into the Circumstances of the Four Hijackings

The Immediate Response to the Attacks at the National, State, and local levels, including issues of Continuity of Government

Timeline

November 27, 2002 Bush signs a bill creating the Commission. Bush also appoints Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to chair the commission.

December 11, 2002 – Former Senator George Mitchell, originally chosen by Democrats to be vice chairman, resigns, saying the workload would be too much and citing potential conflicts of interest with his law firm.

December 13, 2002 Kissinger resigns over potential conflicts of interest involving clients of his consulting firm and public outcry over his appointment.

December 16, 2002 – Bush appoints Kean to chair the Commission.

March 31 – April 1, 2003 The first of 12 public hearings take place. The focus is hearing from victims and people impacted by 9/11.

July 8, 2003 The first interim report is released.

September 23, 2003 – The second interim report is released.

March 24, 2004 Former Counterterrorism Chief Richard A. Clarke testifies at the eighth public hearing. Clark testifies that the Bush administration did not see terrorism as an “urgent issue” prior to September 11.

March 30, 2004 – The White House says it will allow National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to testify publicly before the commission investigating the September 11 terrorist attacks, so long as her appearance is not considered a precedent.

April 8, 2004 – Rice testifies in the morning – public and under oath. Former President Bill Clinton testifies in the afternoon. Clinton’s testimony is not public or under oath.

April 13, 2004 Former FBI Director Louis Freeh, Former Attorney General Janet Reno and current Attorney General John Ashcroft testify at the 10th public hearing. Former acting FBI Director Thomas Pickard and J. Cofer Black, former head of the CIA’s counterterrorism center, also testify.

April 14, 2004 CIA Director George Tenet and FBI Director Robert Mueller testify in separate public sessions.

April 29, 2004 – Bush and Cheney meet with the 9/11 Commission from 9:30 a.m. until 12:40 p.m., in the Oval Office at the White House. The President and Vice President answer questions but are not under oath. The meeting is not officially recorded. Two members of the White House counsel’s staff are allowed to take notes during the session, as are the commission members.

May 19, 2004 – Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani and former director of New York City’s Office of Emergency Management Jerry Hauer testify before the 9/11 Commission.

May 27, 2004 Original deadline to report on its findings.

June 16, 2004 Commission holds its twelfth and final public hearing on its investigation into the September 11 attacks.

July 22, 2004 – The Commission releases its final report. The report said the original plot called for 10 hijacked planes, al Qaeda’s role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing was uncertain and there was no “credible evidence” of cooperation between Iraq and al Qaeda.

July 15, 2005 – It is announced that actors Hilary Swank and Kevin Costner will narrate the upcoming documentary film “On Native Soil: The Documentary of the 9/11 Commission Report.” The film will tell some of the survivors’ stories and will examine some of the commission’s recommendations.

September 10-11, 2006 ABC airs a dramatization based on the 9/11 Commission Report called “The Path to 9/11.” It airs over two nights with limited commercial interruption. Kean serves as a senior consultant on the project.

July 21, 2011 The Department of Homeland Security releases a report citing “significant progress” in fulfilling specific recommendations made by the 9/11 Commission.

August 31, 2011 The heads of the 9/11 Commission release a report warning of gaps in terrorism prevention in the United States. The report, Tenth Anniversary Report Card: The Status of the 9/11 Commission Recommendations, highlights nine of the commission’s recommendations that remain unfulfilled.

January 2012 Despite the 9/11 Commission’s directive to make most of their material available to the public by 2009, the records remained sealed at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

April 12, 2012 Kean and Hamilton, now leaders of the Bipartisan Policy Center’s re-launched Homeland Security Project, announce new members.

March 25, 2015 – The FBI releases its final report on the 9/11 Review Commission: The FBI: Protecting the Homeland in the 21st Century. The report discusses the FBI’s implementation of the commission’s recommendations.

July 2015 – The Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel declassifies and authorizes the release of some 9/11 Commission documents, including one on FBI files related to 9/11. The file, dubbed “Document 17” or “File 17” in media reports because it is the 17th of 29 released, contains information about links between Saudi Arabia and the 9/11 hijackers. It has much of the same information contained in the 28 pages of a congressional report on 9/11 which are released about a year later.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

Ground Zero Memorial and Rebuilding Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the rebuilding of Ground Zero in lower Manhattan and the memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks.

September 11 Memorial

The memorial honors those killed on September 11 2001 in all locations of the attack as well as those killed on February 26 1993 when terrorists set off a truck bomb in the basement of the World Trade Center.

April 28 2003 – The World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition launches.

June 2003 – The Memorial Competition submission period closes. 5201 submissions are received from 63 nations.

November 19 2003 – Eight prospective plans chosen from the submissions are displayed for the public in the World Financial Center in New York.

January 6 2004 – The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation announces its choice of “Reflecting Absence” by Israeli-born architect Michael Arad.

September 10 2005 – Supporters of the Take Back the Memorial campaign protest the inclusion of an International Freedom Center in plans for the memorial.

September 28 2005 – In a written statement Governor George Pataki announces that plans for the International Freedom Center adjacent to the planned memorial at the World Trade Center site have been abandoned.

July 12 2011 – More than 42000 passes to the memorial are reserved in the first 24 hours they are made available.

September 11 2011 – The 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks and the dedication of the memorial.

September 12 2011 – The memorial opens to the public.

2012 – A dispute between the Port of Authority of New York and New Jersey delays construction of the 9/11 museum planned for the memorial site. The museum was originally supposed to open on the 11th anniversary of 9/11.

September 10 2012 – The budgetary dispute delaying the opening of the museum is resolved when all parties enter into a “memorandum of understanding” an agreement that allows them to restart construction.

May 15 2014 – The National September 11 Memorial & Museum opens its doors for the 9/11 community — survivors families and rescuers. Within it are 12500 objects 1995 oral histories and 580 hours of film and video.

May 21 2014 – The museum opens to the public.

Redevelopment of Lower Manhattan

Fall 2001 – New York Governor George Pataki and New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani create the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC). The mission of the LMDC is to “help plan and coordinate the rebuilding and revitalization of Lower Manhattan.”

The LMDC also administers the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition a separate process from that of rebuilding the World Trade Center area.

A 15-member board of directors governs the LMDC. The governor of New York and the mayor of New York City each appoint half of the members. The LMDC is also assisted by nine advisory councils.

According to an audit conducted by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey the rebuilding cost grew from approximately $11 billion in 2008 to $14.8 billion in 2012.

August 12 2002 FEMA and the Federal Transit Administration announce $4.55 billion in federal aid for transportation improvements in Lower Manhattan.

September 26 2002 Six design teams are hired out of 407 submissions to create land use plans for the 16-acre site.

December 18 2002 An exhibit of nine possible designs opens at the World Financial Center.

February 27 2003 Daniel Libeskind’s “Memory Foundations” is selected as the new design for the site.

September 17 2003 The LMDC releases a revised Master Plan for the site.

November 23 2003 – PATH train service is restored linking Lower Manhattan and New Jersey. Trains operate out of a temporary station in the area.

December 19 2003 Plans for the Freedom Tower to be built at Ground Zero are revealed.

January 22 2004 – Architect Santiago Calatrava unveils his plans for the area transportation hub.

July 4 2004 Construction at Freedom Tower begins. A 20-ton slab of granite inscribed “the enduring spirit of freedom” is laid as the cornerstone of one of the new skyscrapers that will stand on the site.

May 4 2005 Governor Pataki calls for a redesign of the new tower for safety reasons.

June 29 2005 – New York officials release the latest design for the signature building at the site after revising it to make the tower more secure.

September 6 2005 Architect Santiago Calatrava and public officials dedicate the first steel rail for the future transportation station.

December 15 2005 Architect Lord Norman Foster agrees to design the next major building planned for the site. Foster will design a 65-story tower for the northeast corner of the 16-acre site.

April 26 2006 The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and developer Larry Silverstein reach an agreement about the financing of Freedom Tower resolving problems that had delayed construction.

April 27 2006 The formal groundbreaking of Freedom Tower takes place.

March 26 2009 The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announces dropping the name “Freedom Tower” and that the first commercial lease in the building has been signed. Upon completion the building will be named One World Trade Center.

May 10 2013 Construction workers bolt the last pieces of a 408-foot spire into place atop One World Trade Center bringing the building to a height of 1776 feet. This height references the year the United States declared its independence. It also makes the building the tallest in the Western Hemisphere and the third tallest in the world.

November 3 2014 – One World Trade Center opens for business when the first tenant Conde Nast moves in.

May 29 2015 – The observatory opens in the top three floors of One World Trade Center.

March 3 2016 – The first phase of the World Trade Center transportation hub opens.

June 29 2016 – Liberty Park opens to the public.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

September 11 Terror Attacks Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Facts

Nineteen men hijacked four fuel-loaded US commercial airplanes bound for west coast destinations. A total of 2,977 people were killed in New York City, Washington, DC and outside of Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

The attack was orchestrated by al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

The Victims

At the World Trade Center (WTC) site in Lower Manhattan, 2,753 people were killed when hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were intentionally crashed into the north and south towers, or as a result of the crashes.

Of those who perished during the initial attacks and the subsequent collapses of the towers, 343 were New York City firefighters, 23 were New York City police officers and 37 were officers at the Port Authority.

The victims ranged in age from two to 85 years. Approximately 75-80% of the victims were men.

At the Pentagon in Washington, 184 people were killed when hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the building.

Near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 40 passengers and crew members aboard United Airlines Flight 93 died when the plane crashed into a field. It is believed that the hijackers crashed the plane in that location, rather than their unknown target, after the passengers and crew attempted to retake control of the flight deck.

As of October 2019, 1,645 (60%) of 2,753 WTC victims’ remains have been positively identified, according to the medical examiner’s office.

Timeline

September 11, 2001
8:46 a.m. ET – American Airlines Flight 11 (traveling from Boston to Los Angeles) strikes the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.
– 9:03 a.m. ET – United Airlines Flight 175 (traveling from Boston to Los Angeles) strikes the south tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.
– 9:37 a.m. ET – American Airlines Flight 77 (traveling from Dulles, Virginia, to Los Angeles) strikes the Pentagon Building in Washington.
– 9:59 a.m. ET – South tower of WTC collapses in approximately 10 seconds.
– 10:03 a.m. ET – United Airlines Flight 93 (traveling from Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco) crashes in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
– 10:28 a.m. ET – North tower of WTC collapses. The time between the first attack and the collapse of both World Trade Center towers is 102 minutes.

December 13, 2001 The US government releases a tape in which Osama bin Laden takes responsibility for the attacks.

December 18, 2001 – Congress approves a measure to allow the president to designate September 11 as “Patriot Day” on each anniversary of the attacks.

December 2001-June 15, 2004 – The original Victims Compensation Fund processes death and injury claims from families and relatives of September 11 victims. Families of those killed had until December 22, 2003, to apply for compensation. The fund reopens in 2011.

May 24, 2007 The Chief Medical Examiner of New York City, Dr. Charles S. Hirsch, rules that the death of Felicia Dunn-Jones in 2002, from dust exposure, is directly linked to the 9/11 attack and therefore a homicide.

July 19, 2007The New York Medical Examiner’s Office announces that the remains of three more people are positively identified. 1,133 victims, 41% of the total, remain unidentified.

January 2009 The medical examiner’s office rules that Leon Heyward, who died the previous year of lymphoma and lung disease, is a homicide victim because he was caught in the toxic dust cloud just after the towers collapsed.

January 2, 2011 – President Barack Obama signs James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, reopening and expanding the scope of the Victim Compensation Fund.

June 17, 2011 The New York medical examiner rules that Jerry Borg’s death on December 15, 2010, is a result of inhaling toxic substances from the dust cloud generated by the collapsing twin towers.

May 10, 2014 – The unidentified remains of those killed in the attacks are returned to the World Trade Center site where they will be kept in a repository under the jurisdiction of the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York.

August 7, 2017 – The New York City medical examiner’s office announces that the remains of a man killed at the World Trade Center are positively identified due to more sophisticated DNA testing being available.

2019 – The remains of three victims are identified by the New York City medical examiner’s office through DNA testing.

September 11th Victim Compensation Fund

The original fund operated from December 2001 to June 2004.

The initial Victim Compensation Fund received 7,408 applications for both death claims and personal injury claims.

The fund made awards in 5,560 of those cases.

The reopened and expanded fund has operated since January 2, 2011. Information on total awards is updated regularly and posted here.

Families who agreed to get compensation from the federal fund agreed not to sue the airlines.

Economic Impact

$500,000 – Estimated amount of money it cost to plan and execute the 9/11 attacks.

$123 billion – Estimated economic loss during the first 2-4 weeks after the World Trade Center towers collapsed in New York City, as well as decline in airline travel over the next few years.

$60 billion Estimated cost of the WTC site damage, including damage to surrounding buildings, infrastructure and subway facilities.

$40 billion Value of the emergency anti-terrorism package approved by the US Congress on September 14, 2001.

$15 billionAid package passed by Congress to bail out the airlines.

$9.3 billion Insurance claims arising from the 9/11 attacks.

Cleanup at Ground Zero

May 30, 2002 – Cleanup at Ground Zero officially ends.

It took 3.1 million hours of labor to clean up 1.8 million tons of debris.

The total cost of cleanup was $750 million.

Homeland Security

The Department of Homeland Security was created in response to September 11.

It merged 22 governmental agencies into one, including the Customs Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the US Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Through the Container Security Initiative, over 80% of imported maritime containerized cargo is prescreened before entering the US.

March 12, 2002 – The Homeland Security Advisory System is introduced.

April 20, 2011 – The National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) replaces the color-coded Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS).

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September 11 Victim Aid and Compensation Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund (VCF) and the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010.

Facts

From 2001 to 2003 the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund (VCF) processed claims relating to injuries and deaths caused by the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001.

In 2011 the fund was re-opened to compensate first responders and individuals who later experienced health problems related to 9/11.

The WTC Health Registry monitors the health of registrants who were directly exposed to the disaster.

Statistics for VCF 2001-2003

The fund received 7408 claim submissions from 75 countries. Awards were made in 5560 of those cases and totaled over $7 billion.

The fund received 2963 death claims. This accounted for more than 98% of eligible families. Funds were distributed in 2880 of these cases. The average award was $2082128 and went as high as $7.1 million.

The fund received 4445 personal injury claims. Funds were distributed in 2680 of these cases. The awards ranged from $500.00 to $8.6 million.

The money was tax-free.

Statistics for Re-opened VCF (as of July 31 2020)

Eighth Annual Status Report

Since its re-opening in 2011 the VCF has received 55640 total eligibility claims. Of that 32588 eligibility claims have been approved.

More than $6.9 billion in compensation has been rendered.

Timeline

November 26 2001 – Kenneth R. Feinberg is appointed the Special Master in charge of the federal Victim Compensation Fund.

June 15 2004 – The September 11th Victims Compensation Fund finishes its work processing death and injury claims from families and relatives of 9/11 victims. Families of those killed had until December 22 2003 to apply for compensation. Families who agree to get compensation from the federal fund agree not to sue the airlines.

November 8 2004 – A report by the Rand Institute for Civil Justice finds that victims of the September 11 2001 attacks received an average of $3.1 million per person totaling $8.7 billion. About $38 billion in all is paid out by the government charities and insurance companies. Insurance companies pay the most covering 51%. The majority of the money goes to New York businesses.

January 2 2011 – President Barack Obama signs the First Responders Bill also known as the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act reactivating the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund that ran from 2001-2003. The act expands health coverage and compensation to first responders and individuals who have developed 9/11-related health problems setting aside $2.775 billion to compensate claimants for lost wages and other damages related to the illnesses.

May 18 2011 – Attorney General Eric Holder names Sheila L. Birnbaum as Special Master of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. She administers the fund created by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act.

September 30 2011 – The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund re-opens to serve those eligible for claims under the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act.

August 15 2012 – Sheila Birnbaum announces that award distribution is on hold until the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health decides whether to add cancer to the list of illnesses covered by the Zadroga Act.

September 12 2012 – The final rule adding 58 types of cancer to “the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions” is published in the Federal Register.

December 18 2015 – President Barack Obama signs a bill reauthorizing the Zadroga Act which also extends the VCF. The bill extends the deadline for filing claims through December 2020.

July 21 2016Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch names Rupa Bhattacharyya as the new Special Master of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. Bhattacharyya will take over when Sheila L. Birnbaum steps down later in the month.

February 15 2019 – Bhattacharyya releases the seventh annual status report indicating that the VCF has insufficient funds to pay all current and projected claims.

July 29 2019 – President Donald Trump signs an act into law which authorizes the extension of the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund. The fund was slated to expire in 2020. But the newly signed legislation championed by comedian Jon Stewart ensures the compensation for victims through 2090.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

September 11 Warning Signs Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the warning signs that preceded the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Timeline

1988 – Osama bin Laden founds al Qaeda (or “the base”), a militant group with a core goal of waging global jihad.

January 6, 1995 – Abdul Hakim Murad is arrested in Manila, Philippines. He details plans to blow up US airliners over the Pacific and to crash a plane packed with explosives into either the CIA headquarters or another US federal building.

August 7, 1998 – Bombs explode at US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 224 people. Al Qaeda claims responsibility.

October 8, 1998 – The FAA warns airlines and airports to maintain a “high degree of alertness.” The warning is in response to statements made by bin Laden in the aftermath of the US bombings of al Qaeda targets in Afghanistan and Sudan.

Late 1998 – The US intelligence community collects info indicating bin Laden wants to coordinate an attack inside the United States but the threats are vague, lacking in details about the time and place. Concern reaches peak levels during the spring and summer of 2001.

1999 French intelligence puts Zacarias Moussaoui on a watch list of suspected terrorists.

September 1999 A federal study of terrorism is released. According to the study, al Qaeda “poses the most serious terrorist threat to US security interests.” The study warns that al Qaeda “could crash-land an aircraft packed with high explosives (C-4 and Semtex) into the Pentagon, the headquarters of the CIA or the White House.”

December 1999 The CIA intercepts phone conversations in Yemen detailing plans for an upcoming al Qaeda summit in Malaysia.

December 14, 1999 Ahmed Ressam is stopped trying to enter the US from Canada. In his car, investigators find 130 pounds of bomb-making materials. It is revealed eventually that Ressam planned to blow up Los Angeles International Airport.

January 2000 The CIA obtains intelligence pertaining to a meeting of suspected al Qaeda operatives in Kuala Lumpur.

October 12, 2000 Suicide bombers attack the USS Cole in Yemen, killing 17 sailors. Al Qaeda claims responsibility.

2001 – Moussaoui trains at flights schools in Oklahoma and Minnesota.

January-September 2001 The FAA issues 15 information circulars containing generalized warnings about terrorist threats.

July 10, 2001 FBI Agent Kenneth Williams writes a memo about Middle Eastern men training at Phoenix area flight schools, speculating that they could be connected to al Qaeda. CIA Director George Tenet briefs officials, including National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice, about the al Qaeda threat.

August 6, 2001 President George W. Bush receives a memo titled, “Bin Ladin determined to strike in US.”

August 15, 2001 The Pan Am International Flight Academy in Minnesota alerts the FBI to their suspicions about Moussaoui. He had paid for the training in cash and requested instruction on flying large jets, even though he had little experience. Moussaoui is later questioned by the FBI and arrangements are made to deport him.

August 23, 2001 The CIA sends an urgent cable to the FBI, State Department, Customs and INS, alerting them to the CIA’s concerns about individuals linked to bin Laden.

September 4, 2001 Bush’s national security advisers approve a draft version of a plan to combat al Qaeda. It includes provisions for $200 million to arm the enemies of the Taliban. The advisers plan to present the draft to Bush on September 10, however the president is traveling and does not see it.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

Rosa Parks Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Civil rights leader Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger in 1955. This lead to African-Americans boycotting public transportation to protest Parks’ arrest and, in turn, segregation laws. Here’s a look at her life.

Personal

Birth date: February 4, 1913

Death date: October 24, 2005

Birth place: Tuskegee, Alabama

Birth name: Rosa Louise McCauley

Father: James McCauley, carpenter

Mother: Leona (Edwards) McCauley, teacher

Marriage: Raymond Parks (1932-1977, his death)

Timeline

1930-1955 – Works several jobs as a housekeeper, seamstress, secretary and life insurance agent. Spends her spare time active in the voter registration movement and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1943-1956 – Serves as secretary for the Montgomery, Alabama, branch of the NAACP.

December 1, 1955 – While on her way home from her job as a seamstress at the Montgomery Fair department store, Parks is arrested when she refuses to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man, thus violating Jim Crow practices.

December 5, 1955 – Day one of the 381-day boycott of the Montgomery bus system in response to Parks’ arrest and segregation laws. It becomes known as the official beginning of the civil rights movement. On the same day, Parks is tried and found guilty of violating Montgomery’s segregation laws. Her attorneys appeal the verdict, arguing the laws are unconstitutional.

November 13, 1956 – The US Supreme Court declares Montgomery bus segregation laws unconstitutional and illegal.

December 20, 1956 – The court’s written order is officially served to Montgomery officials. The boycott ends and buses are integrated.

1957 – Parks and her husband Raymond move to Detroit to escape pro-segregation harassment. She continues activist work with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

1965-1988 – Works as an administrative assistant to US Representative John Conyers.

1987 – Founds the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development, an organization offering career training, education and motivation to youth.

February 1991 – The Smithsonian Institute unveils a bronze bust of Parks in the National Portrait Gallery.

December 1991 – The autobiography, “Rosa Parks: My Story,” is published.

1998 – Receives the first International Freedom Conductor Award from the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.

January 19, 1999 – Attends the State of the Union Address, sits with First Lady Hillary Clinton and is mentioned in the address in regards to the country’s efforts to bring about racial harmony.

June 15, 1999 – Is presented the Congressional Gold Medal by President Bill Clinton.

February 2002 – The National Parks Service puts Parks’ Montgomery home on the National Registry of Historic Places.

August 2004 – Parks files a second lawsuit against the music group Outkast over their song “Rosa Parks,” seeking $5 billion from record and distribution companies and stores that sold the song, claiming the song violated her publicity and trademark rights.

September 22, 2004 – Parks’ lawyer confirms that Parks has dementia.

October 2004 – A legal dispute surrounding the appointment of a guardian for Parks ensues. A judge appoints former Detroit Mayor Dennis Archer her legal guardian, but Parks’ lawyer files a motion to block Archer’s appointment.

January 12, 2005 – A judge releases Parks’ medical records showing that she has suffered from dementia since at least 2002.

April 14, 2005 – A settlement in the suit against Outkast is announced. OutKast and co-defendants will help develop educational programs and will work with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute to promote Parks’ legacy.

October 24, 2005 – Rosa Parks dies at the age of 92 of natural causes.