Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

US Capitol Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s some background information about the US Capitol. Located at 100 Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, DC, it is the meeting place of the US Congress.

Other Facts

Throughout history, the US Capitol has been destroyed by fire, reconstructed, expanded and restored.

The US Capitol Police (USCP) are charged with protecting Congress’ members, employees, visitors, and all facilities.

Each chamber has a sergeant at arms who serves as the chief law enforcement officer and protocol officer.

The Office of Security Programs manages security operations and supports USCP.

All visitors are screened by a magnetometer and their belongings screened by an x-ray machine.

The Building

The Capitol building has more than 540 rooms and has 658 windows.

The Dome is 8,909,200 pounds of cast-iron with 108 windows and was constructed between 1855 and 1866. The statue at the top of dome is the Statue of Freedom.

The Rotunda stands 180 feet, three inches tall and is 96 feet in diameter. Paintings and sculptures depicting significant people and events in US history are on display. This room is where presidents and distinguished citizens lie in state.

National Statuary Hall used to be the chambers for the House of Representatives, called the Old Hall of the House (1809-1857). The hall holds 100 of the Capitol’s collection of statues of notable citizens in US history, two per state.

The Brumidi Corridors are named after the artist, Constantino Brumidi, who designed the murals along the walls.

Visitor areas on the ground floor include the Hall of Columns, the Brumidi Corridors, the Old Supreme Court Chamber and the Crypt (historical exhibits are presented here).

The Senate chambers are in the north wing and chambers for the House of Representatives and the offices of Congressional leaders are in the south wing.

The third floor has visitors’ areas where they may watch proceedings.

The Capitol Complex includes the Capitol, Capitol Visitor Center, Senate Office Buildings, House Office Buildings, US Supreme Court, Library of Congress, US Botanic Garden and Capitol Campus grounds.

The Capitol Complex is maintained by the Architect of the Capitol (AOC).

The first AOC was Dr. William Thornton in 1793.

Timeline

September 18, 1793 – The cornerstone is laid by US President George Washington.

1800 – Congress moves from Philadelphia to the new Capitol building in Washington. Only the north wing is complete.

1801 – Supreme Court holds first meeting in the Capitol.

1814 – The Capitol is burned by British troops.

1819 – The Supreme Court, Senate and House meet in newly reconstructed rooms in the Capitol.

1829 – Building reconstruction is completed.

1851 – US President Millard Fillmore appoints Thomas U. Walter as the main architect to build extensions onto to the Capitol.

1857 – The House of Representatives holds its first session in its new hall.

1859 – The Senate holds its first session in its new chamber.

1863 – The Statue of Freedom is raised into place atop the dome.

1870 – Exteriors of Capitol extensions are completed.

1890-1900 – Electric lighting is installed throughout building and grounds.

1897 – The Library of Congress moves into its first building (later named the Thomas Jefferson Building).

1935 – The US Supreme Court moves into its own building.

1949-1951 – The House and Senate chambers are redesigned and remodeled.

March 1, 1954 – Five members of the House of Representatives are shot on the House floor; Alvin Bentley, (R-MI), Ben Jensen (R-IA), Clifford Davis (D-TN), George Fallon (D-MD) and Kenneth Roberts (D-AL). Four Puerto Rican nationalists: Lolita Lebron, Rafael Cancel Miranda, Andres Figueroa Cordero and Irving Flores Rodriguez, are arrested and sent to prison. The shooters were heard shouting, “Freedom for Puerto Rico,” as they fired. This incident ends up changing the security measures at the Capitol.

1958-1962 – East Front extension to the Capitol takes place.

July 24, 1998 – Gunman Russell Eugene Weston Jr., fires shots in the Capitol building killing two USCP officers: Jacob Chestnut, an 18-year veteran and Detective John Gibson, an eight-year veteran. Angela Dickerson is injured during the attack.

December 2, 2008 – The latest addition to the Capitol, the Visitor Center, opens. The Center is nearly 3/4 the size of the Capitol and is located underground. It becomes the main entrance and security checkpoint for the Capitol.

April 24, 2009 – The Capitol is briefly evacuated, and the White House temporarily locked down when a single-engine plane accidentally wanders into restricted airspace over Washington.

November 2013 – The AOC office announces that the US Capitol Dome Restoration Project is beginning. The project is completed in November 2016.

January 14, 2015 – FBI agents arrest 20-year-old Christopher Lee Cornell before he could move on his plan to attack the US Capitol during the State of the Union address. According to a criminal complaint filed by an FBI agent, the plan was to set off pipe bombs to put lawmakers and employees in panicked flight, and then gun them down with an assault rifle as they ran across his path and that of an accomplice. Cornell later pleads guilty on three federal charges and is sentenced to 30 years in prison.

April 15, 2015 – Douglas Hughes, 62, of Florida flies a gyrocopter undetected through restricted airspace and lands on the West Lawn of the Capitol. Hughes later pleads guilty to operating as an airman without a certificate and is sentenced to 120 days in jail.

March 28, 2016 – USCP shoot Larry Russell Dawson, 67, of Tennessee after he pulls out what appears to be a weapon at the Capitol Visitor Center. Dawson later pleads guilty to a federal charge of assaulting, impeding or resisting officers while using a dangerous or deadly weapon and is sentenced to 11 months in prison.

June 18, 2020 – House Speaker Nancy Pelosi orders the removal of four portraits of Confederate House Speakers from the US Capitol.

January 6, 2021 – Pro-President Donald Trump rioters storm the US Capitol, as members of Congress meet to certify the Electoral College results of the 2020 presidential election. The building goes into lockdown, and the House floor is evacuated. Vice President Mike Pence, who is overseeing the vote on the Electoral College results, is also evacuated. A total of five die, including a Capitol Police officer the next day, and more than 50 are arrested. Afterwards, calls increase for Trump to be removed from office, either by impeachment or via the 25th Amendment.

April 2, 2021 – Noah Green, 25, rams a vehicle into a police barricade outside the Capitol building, killing one police officer and injuring another. Green brandishes a knife after ramming his vehicle into the barricade on Constitution Avenue and is subsequently shot and killed by police officers.

Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

Manson Family Murders Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at Charles Manson and the 1969 “Manson Family” murders.

Personal

Birth date: November 12, 1934

Death date: November 19, 2017

Birth place: Cincinnati, Ohio

Birth name: Charles Milles Maddox

Father: Father’s name unavailable publicly

Mother: Kathleen Maddox

Marriages: Rosalie Jean (Willis) Manson (1955-divorce date unknown); was also married to a woman named Leona in the early 1960s, whose last name is not publicly known.

Children: At least two: with Rosalie Jean (Willis) Manson: Charles M. Manson Jr. (1956-1993); with a woman whose name is not publicly available: Charles Luther Manson

Other Facts

Reportedly, during his childhood, Manson’s mother sold him for a pitcher of beer to a woman who wanted to have children. His uncle had to find the woman so that he could get his nephew back.

He later took his stepfather William Manson’s last name.

According to the California Parole Board, Manson had a history of manipulation, controlling behavior and mental illnesses which included schizophrenia and paranoid delusional behavior.

Timeline

1947 – At age 12, Manson is sent to Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, for stealing. Over the next twenty years, he is in and out of reform schools and prison for various crimes.

March 21, 1967 – Manson is released from prison. He tells the prison officials that he doesn’t want to be released, “Oh, no, I can’t go outside there…I knew that I couldn’t adjust to that world, not after all my life had been spent locked up and where my mind was free.” After his release, he moves to San Francisco.

1967-1968 – Manson meets Gary Hinman, a music teacher who introduces him to Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys.

— Manson attracts a group of followers. The group moves to the Spahn Ranch, outside of Chatsworth, California.

— Wilson introduces Manson to record producer Terry Melcher, the son of actress Doris Day. After initially showing interest in Manson’s music, Melcher declines to work with him further.

— Melcher later moves out of his home on Cielo Drive, and the house is then leased to film director Roman Polanski and his wife, actress Sharon Tate.

July 1969 – Hinman is killed by Manson follower Bobby Beausoleil, accompanied by Manson Family members Mary Brunner and Susan Atkins. The murder is committed at the behest of Manson.

August 8-9, 1969 – At Manson’s command, a small group of his most ardent followers brutally murder five people at the Benedict Canyon home of Polanski, near Hollywood. The victims are Polanski’s pregnant wife, actress Tate, writer Wojciech Frykowski, coffee heiress Abigail Folger and celebrity hair stylist Jay Sebring. Also killed is Steven Parent, who was a friend of the family’s gardener. The murders are committed by followers Atkins, Tex Watson, and Patricia Krenwinkel. Linda Kasabian accompanies them as a lookout.

August 9-10, 1969 – Manson, displeased at the sloppiness of the previous night’s murders, accompanies a group of followers on a search for victims. In the car are: Watson, Atkins, Krenwinkel, Kasabian as well as Leslie van Houten and Steve “Clem” Grogan. After several hours, the group comes upon the house of supermarket executive Leno LaBianca and his wife, Rosemary. The couple are brutally murdered by Watson, Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten.

October 1969 – Manson and his followers are arrested at another remote location, called Barker Ranch, on suspicion of auto theft.

November 6, 1969 – Manson Family member Atkins, already charged in the murder of Hinman, tells inmate Virginia Castro that she killed Tate, “Because we wanted to do a crime that would shock the world, that the world would have to stand up and take notice.”

November 12, 1969 – LA Sheriff’s detectives interview Al Springer, motorcycle gang member who had some association with Manson. Springer tells them that Manson told him about killing people days after the Tate murders.

November 16, 1969 – The LAPD interviews inmate Ronnie Howard about her conversation with Atkins concerning the Tate/LaBianca murders.

November 18, 1969 – Deputy District Attorney Vincent T. Bugliosi is assigned the case.

November 30, 1969 – Watson is apprehended in Texas. His lawyers fight extradition to California for nine months.

December 8, 1969 – Manson, Watson, Atkins, Krenwinkel and Kasabian are indicted for the murders of Tate and her friends. The grand jury also indicts the five, plus Van Houten, for the LaBianca murders.

June 16, 1970 – Trial begins for Manson, Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten.

— Manson appears in court with an “X” carved into his forehead.

— He defends himself in court with the help of attorney Irving Kanarek.

August 1970 – Kasabian is given immunity in exchange for her testimony against Manson and the others.

January 15, 1971 – After a seven-month trial, jury deliberations begin. The jury finds all the defendants guilty on January 25.

March 29, 1971 – Manson, Krenwinkel, Atkins and Van Houten receive the death penalty.

1971 – Watson is found guilty of the murders of seven people and is sentenced to death.

1972 – The death penalty is abolished in California. The sentences for all Manson Family members are commuted to life in prison.

April 11, 2012 – Manson is denied parole for the 12th time. According to the California Parole Board, he has accrued 108 serious disciplinary violations in prison since 1971 and has shown no remorse for the murders. Manson’s next parole hearing is set for 2027, when he will be 92.

November 20, 2013 – A 25-year-old pen pal, who calls herself “Star,” tells Rolling Stone magazine that she considers Manson her husband. The imprisoned cult leader says, however, that Star’s story is “garbage.” She began sending letters to Manson when she was in high school.

November 18, 2014 – Sources tell CNN that Manson and Star have, in fact, obtained a marriage license.

February 2015 – The wedding is called off, according to tabloid reports.

June 6, 2015 – Bugliosi, Manson’s prosecutor and the author of the best-selling book, “Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders,” dies in California.

November 19, 2017 – Two days after being transported to the hospital, Manson, 83, dies of natural causes.

March 13, 2018 – After a four-month fight over Manson’s remains, a Kern County judge rules in favor of Jason Freeman who claims he is Manson’s grandson.

Major Players (“Manson Family”)

Susan “Sadie” Denise Atkins:
September 24, 2009 – Dies in prison.

Bobby Beausoleil:
1969 – Convicted of the murder of Gary Hinman. He is serving a life sentence.

October 14, 2016 – Beausoleil is denied parole for the 18th time. He will eligible again for parole consideration in three years.

January 3, 2019 – Beausoleil is recommended for parole at his 19th overall hearing, a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation spokesman says. The Board of Parole Hearings staff will review the case next and, if it is approved, the case will go to the governor to rule on the parole decision.

April 26, 2019 – California Governor Gavin Newsom denies parole for Beausoleil.

Bruce Davis:
April 21, 1972 – Convicted of the murders of Hinman and stuntman Donald “Shorty” Shea. He is serving a life sentence.

February 1, 2017 – Is recommended for parole.

June 23, 2017 – Governor Jerry Brown denies parole for Davis. This is the fifth time a California governor has refused to release him.

June 22, 2019 – Is granted parole by the Board, which will be followed by the governor’s final determination as to his release.

Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme:
1975 – Attempts to shoot President Gerald Ford.

August 14, 2009 – Is released on parole after serving 34 years.

Steven “Clem” Grogan:
1985Grogan is released on parole after revealing the location of the body of ranch-hand Donald “Shorty” Shea, killed in 1969.

Patricia “Katie” Krenwinkel:
2014 – Krenwinkel provides an interview for the documentary “Life After Manson,” her first on-camera appearance since 1994.

December 2016 – California parole board members delay their decision on freeing Krenwinkel after her attorney raises claims of abuse by Manson, or another member of the cult. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation issues a statement that the information presented at the hearing does elicit cause for an investigation.

June 22, 2017 – Krenwinkel is denied parole for the 14th time. She will be eligible again for consideration in five years.

Leslie Van Houten:
April 14, 2016 – A parole board panel recommends Van Houten’s release, and the full Board of Parole Hearings will review the decision over the next four months.

July 2016 – California Gov. Brown denies parole for Van Houten.

September 6, 2017 – A two-person state commission panel grants Van Houten parole for the second time. The decision will go through a 120-day legal review before Brown will have 30-days to decide whether Van Houten will be granted parole and released.

January 19, 2018 – Brown denies parole for Van Houten, citing the horrific nature of the murders, Van Houten’s eager participation, and his belief that she minimizes her role in the murders.

January 30, 2019 – Van Houten is recommended for parole at her 22nd overall hearing, according to a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation spokesman.

June 3, 2019 – Van Houten is denied parole for the third time in three years.

July 23, 2020 – Van Houten is recommended for parole for the fourth time by the California Board of Parole Hearings. On November 27, 2020, Van Houten is denied parole.

Charles D. “Tex” Watson:
October 27, 2016 – Watson is denied parole for the 17th time. He will be eligible for reconsideration in five years.

Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

Titanic Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the RMS Titanic.

April 10, 1912 – The Titanic sets sail on its maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York.

April 14-15, 1912 – The luxury liner hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic around midnight and sinks in less than three hours.

1,517 people died and 706 survived out of 2,223 passengers and crew, according to the US Senate report on the disaster.

Ship

The estimated cost of construction was $7.5 million.

At the time, the RMS Titanic was the largest passenger ship afloat.

The ship’s length was 882 feet, 9 inches, and it weighed 46,328 tons. Its top speed was 23 knots.

The wreckage is located about 350 miles off the southeast coast of Newfoundland.

Cause

The iceberg punctured five of 16 supposedly watertight compartments designed to hold water in case of a breach to the hull.

Investigations at the time blamed Captain Edward Smith for going too fast in dangerous waters, initial ship inspections that had been done too quickly, insufficient room in the lifeboats for all passengers, and a nearby ship’s failure to help.

Many maritime safety reforms were implemented as a result of the findings of the investigations.

Victims and Survivors

There were 329 1st class passengers aboard. 199 survived.

There were 285 2nd class passengers aboard. 119 survived.

There were 710 3rd class passengers aboard. 174 survived.

There were 899 crew members aboard. 214 survived.

Smith went down with the ship, and his body was never recovered.

Frederick Fleet, one of the crew members who first alerted Smith to the iceberg, was rescued and survived.

Notable Passengers

Survived –
– The “Unsinkable” Margaret (Molly) Brown – wife of a silver mine manager, helped command a lifeboat and nursed injured survivors.
– J. Bruce Ismay, managing director of the International Mercantile Marine and one of the Titanic’s owners.
– Henry S. Harper, of the firm Harper & Bros.

Died –
– Colonel John Jacob Astor, member of the Astor family.
– Isidor Straus, co-owner of Macy’s.
– Benjamin Guggenheim, member of the Guggenheim family.
– George D. Widener, son of P.A.B. Widener, Philadelphia businessman.
– Washington Roebling, whose uncle was a builder of the Brooklyn Bridge.
– Charles Melville Hays, general manager of the Grand Trunk Railway.
– William Thomas Stead, journalist and publicist.
– Jacques Futrelle, journalist.
– Henry Birkhardt Harris, theatrical manager.
– Major Archibald Butt, military aide to President Taft and President Roosevelt.
– Francis Davis Millet, American painter.

Timeline

(local time, based on the location of the ship)
March 31, 1909 – Construction on the ship begins, as a design collaboration between William Pirrie’s firm Harland and Wolff and J. Bruce Ismay’s White Star Line, in Belfast, Ireland, and takes three years to complete.

April 10, 1912, 12 p.m. – The RMS Titanic sets sail from Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage, with approximately 2,220 passengers and crew.

April 10, 1912, 6:30 p.m. – Arrival in Cherbourg, France.

April 10, 1912, 8:10 p.m. – Leaves Cherbourg.

April 11, 1912, 11:30 a.m. – Arrival in Queenstown, Ireland.

April 11, 1912, 1:30 p.m. – Leaves Queenstown, raising anchor for the last time.

April 14, 1912, 11:40 p.m. – The Titanic hits an iceberg.

April 15, 1912, 12:40 a.m. – Captain Smith gives the order to uncover the lifeboats and evacuate women and children.

April 15, 1912, 12:20 a.m. – The RMS Carpathia receives distress calls and heads to the site to help. It arrives at 3:30 a.m.

April 15, 1912, 12:45 a.m. – The first lifeboat is launched with 28 people on board out of a capacity of 65.

April 15, 1912, 2:20 a.m. – The Titanic sinks in less than three hours.

April 15, 1912, 8:50 a.m. – The Carpathia leaves for New York with 705 Titanic survivors onboard. It arrives April 18.

April and May 1912 – Separate American and British investigations and official inquiries take place.

September 1, 1985 – Scientists from Woods Hole Deep Submergence LAB in Massachusetts, led by Dr. Robert Ballard, and IFREMER, the French Institute Francais de Recherche pour l’Exploitation des Mers, led by Jean Jarry, locate the wreckage of Titanic.

July 13, 1986 – Ballard and his crew use the manned deep-ocean research submersible Alvin to explore the wreckage. The Alvin is accompanied by a remotely operated vehicle named Jason Jr. to conduct photographic surveys and further inspections.

2004 – Guernsey’s auctions off memorabilia and a few artifacts that had been passed down through the families of survivors from the ship, including an original menu that goes for about $100,000.

May 31, 2009 – The last known survivor, Millvina Dean, dies at age 97.

March 31, 2012 – The world’s largest Titanic attraction opens in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where the ship was built.

April 8-20, 2012 – The 100th anniversary of the Titanic’s voyage. The MS Balmoral traces the ship’s route from Southampton to New York and holds a memorial service, above the wreck, on April 15.

March 2015 – A letter said to have been written by a mother and daughter aboard the Titanic is displayed at the Titanic’s Belfast center in Northern Ireland. The letter was purchased at auction by a couple who then loaned the letter to be displayed at the Titanic exhibition for the next five years.

September 30, 2015 – A first-class lunch menu from the Titanic is sold at auction for $88,000. Auctioned for $7500 was a letter to the man who allegedly bribed a lifeboat’s crew to row away from the disaster rather than rescue more people.

August 2019 – The wreckage is visited for the first time in 14 years during a series of five dives completed by an exploration team from Triton Submarines. The ship is found to be in the process of being swallowed up by the ocean floor and ravaged by metal-eating bacteria.

January 21, 2020 – A statement from British Department for Transport and Maritime Minister Nusrat Ghani confirms that the wreck of the Titanic will be protected under an international agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom.

May 18, 2020 – A judge rules that RMS Titanic Inc. can salvage the radio the Titanic used to call for help.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

NHL All-Star Game Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the National Hockey League (NHL) All-Star Game.

October 22, 2020 – The NHL announces that the All-Star Game, originally scheduled to take place on January 30, 2021 at BB&T Center in Sunrise, Florida, is postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic. The game has been postponed until 2022.

January 25, 2020 – The NHL All-Star Game takes place at Enterprise Center in St. Louis. The Pacific Division defeats the Atlantic Division 5-4. David Pastrnak is named MVP.

Other Facts

The All-Star Game is sponsored by Honda.

Fans vote online to select the captains of four divisions. The player with the most votes in his division wins.

The NHL Hockey Operations Dept. selects the remaining 40: six forwards, three defensemen and two goalies per team, for a total of 44 All-Stars. There are 11 players on each team.

The division representatives in the Western (Central and Pacific) and Eastern (Atlantic and Metropolitan) conferences play, then the winners face off for the championship.

2020 NHL All-Star Team Captains

Atlantic Division: David Pastrnak, Boston Bruins

Central Division: Nathan MacKinnon, Colorado Avalanche

Metropolitan Division: Kris Letang, Pittsburgh Penguins

Pacific Division: Connor McDavid, Edmonton Oilers

Full All-Star Game Rosters

Timeline

October 13, 1947 – The first NHL All-Star Game is played in Toronto. The defending Stanley Cup team plays a selection of players from the league’s other teams.

1966-1967 – The All-Star Game is moved from the start of the season to mid-season.

1968 – The last year that the defending Stanley Cup team plays against a selection of All-Stars.

1979 – The All-Star Game is replaced with a game pitting NHL stars against players from the Soviet Union. This happens again in 1987.

1995 – The All-Star Game is canceled due to a labor dispute.

1998 – The format of the All-Star Game is changed again. North American stars play against a group of all-stars from around the world. This format lasts for five years.

2005 – The All-Star Game is canceled due to a labor dispute.

2006, 2010, 2014 – No All-Star Game due to the Winter Olympics.

2011 – The format of the All-Star Game changes from a conference vs. conference format to a fantasy draft format.

2013 – The All-Star game is canceled due to a labor dispute.

January 25, 2015 – The NHL All-Star Game is held in Columbus, Ohio. Team Toews defeats Team Foligno 17-12, in the highest scoring All-Star Game in history.

November 2015 – The format changes again, to a three-on-three tournament between the four division teams.

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CNN-National & Wolrd

Iditarod Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Iditarod dogsled race. The event is named after the Iditarod Trail, an old mail and supply route, traveled by dogsleds from Seward and Knik to Nome, Alaska.

March 15, 2021 – Dallas Seavey wins his fifth Iditarod.

March 18, 2020 – Thomas Waerner wins his first Iditarod.

Facts

The race ranges from 975 to 998 miles long, depending on whether the southern or northern route is being run. The length can also vary from year to year based on course conditions.

The race traditionally begins on the first Saturday in March, starting in Anchorage and ending in Nome.

The beginning of the race in Anchorage is considered a ceremonial start. The competitive part of the race usually begins the next day in Willow, but depends on weather conditions.

There may be only one musher (person who drives the sled) per team.

There are 12-16 dogs on each team. At least five dogs must be in harness (pulling the sled) at the finish line.

The most popular breed of dog is the Alaskan Husky, according to National Geographic. The animals get tested for strength and endurance before being selected.

There are about 25 checkpoints at which each participant must stop.

The musher must make a mandatory 24 hour stop at some point during the race.

The route alternates every other year, one year going north through Cripple, Ruby, and Galena, the next year going south through Iditarod, Shageluk, and Anvik.

Records

Most Consecutive Wins – Lance Mackey won four consecutive times from 2007-2010.

Most Wins – Rick Swenson won five times, in 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982 and 1991. Dallas Seavey also won five times, in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2021.

Fastest winning time – Mitch Seavey finished the 2017 race in eight days, 3 hours, 40 minutes, 13 seconds.

Winner by a [dog’s] nose – Dick Mackey finished the 1978 race one second ahead of Rick Swenson. The winner is decided by the nose of the first dog across the finish line.

First female winner – Libby Riddles in 1985.

Youngest winner Dallas Seavey, 25, in 2012.

Oldest winner – Mitch Seavey, 57, in 2017.

Timeline

1925 – A diphtheria outbreak in Nome, Alaska, creates an emergency need for medical supplies to be delivered, and dogsledders make the journey. The current race commemorates this mission and partially follows the same route.

1966 – Dorothy Page, President of the Wasilla-Knik Centennial Committee, decides to organize a dogsled race to celebrate Alaska’s centennial in 1967. Page and Joe Redington Sr., a local musher, work together to launch the first event.

1967 – The first Iditarod is held, with 58 mushers competing along a 50-mile trail.

March 1973 – After shorter races in 1967 and 1969, the first full-length race takes place. The course is approximately 1,100 miles long. The first winner is Dick Wilmarth, with a time of 20 days and 49 minutes.

March 12, 2016 – A man on a snowmobile hits two teams competing in the Iditarod, killing one dog and injuring several other dogs. Alaska state troopers arrest Arnold Demoski, 26, of Nulato. Later, Demoski is sentenced to six months and three days in jail and ordered to pay restitution totaling $36,697.15.

October 6, 2017 – The Iditarod Trail Committee revises Rule 39 after a musher’s team of dogs test positive for an opioid drug called Tramadol. Before the rule is revised, the ITC determines that intent of the alleged musher could not be proven. The revised rule holds a musher liable for any positive canine drug test, unless they can prove that they are not at fault. The ITC later reveals four-time champion Dallas Seavey as the musher. Seavey denies the allegations.

December 4, 2018 – The Iditarod Trail Committee clears Seavey of any wrongdoing and releases a statement saying, “After several meetings with Dallas Seavey, and review of all relevant information and evidence, the board does not believe that Dallas had any involvement with, or knowledge of, the events that led to the positive test in his team.”

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CNN-National & Wolrd

Masters Golf Tournament Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Masters, one of golf’s four major tournaments, along with the US Open, the British Open and the PGA Championship. It is held annually at the Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia.

April 8-11, 2021 – The 85th Masters tournament takes place. Hideki Matsuyama wins, becoming the first Japanese man to win a golf major.

November 12-15, 2020 – The 84th Masters tournament takes place. Dustin Johnson wins, finishing with a record-breaking 20-under 268.

About

Par at Augusta National is 72 and the course is 7,475 yards.

Dr. Alister MacKenzie of Scotland was the architect of the course.

The winner is presented with a green blazer. He can wear the “Green Jacket” home, but must return it to the club the next year.

Records

Jack Nicklaus has won six Masters tournaments (1963, 1965, 1966, 1972, 1975, 1986), more than any other golfer. Woods has five Masters wins.

Three players have won consecutive Masters titles: Nicklaus (1965, 1966), Nick Faldo (1989, 1990) and Woods (2001, 2002).

Mark O’Meara played in 15 Masters before he won in 1998. The average number of attempts before a first victory is six.

Woods is the youngest player ever to win the Masters. (21 years, 3 months and 14 days old)

Nicklaus is the oldest player ever to win the Masters. (46 years, 2 months and 23 days old)

Timeline

January 1933 – The Augusta National Golf Club formally opens in Augusta, Georgia, after being founded by golfer Bobby Jones and investment banker Clifford Roberts.

March 22, 1934 – The first Augusta National Invitation Golf Tournament is held.

1937 – Members of Augusta National begin wearing green jackets.

1939 – The tournament is officially named The Masters.

1940 – The date of the tournament moves to the first full week of April.

1943-1945 – During World War II, no tournament is held. Play resumes in 1946.

1956 – First Masters television broadcast, only holes 15 through 18 are broadcast.

1972 – The waiting list for Masters tickets is established. The list has since closed. Applications for practice round tickets are now taken a year in advance.

1990 – TV executive Ron Townsend is admitted as the club’s first African-American member.

2003 – The National Council of Women’s Organizations leads a protest against Augusta National’s all male membership.

April 12, 2004 – Arnold Palmer plays in his 50th and final tournament.

August 20, 2012 – Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and private investment banker Darla Moore become the first women admitted as members of Augusta National Golf Club.

April 6, 2019 – Jennifer Kupcho wins the inaugural Augusta National Women’s Amateur to become the first female to win at the site of the Masters.

March 13, 2020 – Originally scheduled for April 9-12, the 2020 tournament is postponed due to the coronavirus outbreak.

Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

Boston Marathon Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Boston Marathon, run from Hopkinton to Boston. The finish line is in front of the Boston Public Library on Boylston Street.

October 11, 2021 The 125th Boston Marathon is scheduled to take place.

The 2020 Boston Marathon is canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Facts

The race is organized by the Boston Athletic Association (B.A.A.), and the principal sponsor is John Hancock Financial Services.

Runners are categorized by gender, then by age. Qualifying times depend on the age of the participant on the day of the race.

Participants must be 18 years of age on the day of the race and must meet certain time standards to qualify for their age group.

Visually impaired runners are allowed to participate, but they must have a five hour qualifying time. There are also categories for wheelchairs and handcycles.

Runners come from all over the world to participate.

Records

Best Men’s Open time – 2:03:02 – Geoffrey Mutai, Kenya – (2011)
Best Women’s Open time – 2:19:59 – Buzunesh Deba, Ethiopia – (2014)
Best Men’s Wheelchair time – Marcel Hug, Switzerland, 1:18:04 (2017)
Best Women’s Wheelchair time – Manuela Schar, Switzerland – 1:28:17 (2017)

Timeline

April 19, 1897 – The first marathon is run and is 24.8 miles. The winner is John J. McDermott of New York, with a time of 2:55:10. There are 18 entrants, 15 starters and 10 finishers.

1897-1968 – The race is run on April 19, Patriots’ Day, a holiday commemorating the start of the Revolutionary War only recognized in Massachusetts and Maine. In those years that April 19 falls on a Sunday, the race is held the next day, Monday the 20th.

1918 – A military relay is held instead of the marathon due to the United States’ involvement in World War I.

April 19, 1924 – The race is lengthened to 26.2 miles to conform to Olympic standards.

April 17, 1967 – Kathrine Switzer becomes the first woman to receive a number to run in the Boston Marathon. She enters the race under the name K.V. Switzer and wears baggy clothes to disguise herself. Females are not officially allowed to enter until 1972.

1969 – Patriots’ Day is changed to the third Monday in April, so the date of the race is also changed..

1975 – A wheelchair division is added to the marathon. Bob Hall finishes the race in two hours and 58 minutes in a wheelchair.

April 15, 1996 – The 100th Boston Marathon is run. There are a record 35,868 finishers.

April 15, 2013 – Two bombs explode near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring at least 264 others.

May 15, 2015 – Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is sentenced to death for his role in the 2013 marathon bombings. In July 2020, an appeals court vacates Tsarnaev’s death sentence and rules he should be given a new penalty trial. In March 2021, the Supreme Court agrees to review the lower court opinion that vacated Tsarnaev’s death sentence.

October 26, 2016 – Three-time winner Rita Jeptoo, of Kenya, loses her 2014 title and record for the fastest women’s finish ever (2:18:57), as part of a ruling on her two-year ban for doping.

March 13, 2020 – It is announced that the marathon is being rescheduled to September 14, 2020 due to the coronavirus outbreak.

May 28, 2020 – Boston Mayor Marty Walsh announces that the 2020 marathon is canceled because of the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. A virtual event, in which participants can earn their finisher’s medal by verifying that they ran 26.2 miles on their own within a six-hour time period, will take place September 7-14.

October 28, 2020 – The B.A.A. announces that the 2021 marathon will be postponed until at least the fall of 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

Triple Crown Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at horse racing’s Triple Crown. The three races in the Triple Crown are the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes.

Facts

A horse must win all three races to achieve the Triple Crown.

There have been 13 Triple Crown winners:
– 1919 Sir Barton
– 1930 Gallant Fox
– 1935 Omaha
– 1937 War Admiral
– 1941 Whirlaway
– 1943 Count Fleet
– 1946 Assault
– 1948 Citation
– 1973 Secretariat
– 1977 Seattle Slew
– 1978 Affirmed
– 2015 American Pharoah
– 2018 Justify

Since 1990, there have been nine instances where horses have won the first two of the three legs of the Triple Crown: Silver Charm in 1997, Real Quiet in 1998, Charismatic in 1999, War Emblem in 2002, Funny Cide in 2003, Smarty Jones in 2004, Big Brown in 2008, I’ll Have Another in 2012 and California Chrome in 2014.

Rosie Napravnik, in 2013, became the first female jockey to ride in all three Triple Crown races.

June 6, 2015 – American Pharoah wins the 147th Belmont Stakes and becomes one of only 12 horses to achieve the Triple Crown, and the first since 1978. Victor Espinoza is the oldest, and first Latino jockey, to win the most prestigious accomplishment in horse racing.

June 9, 2018 – Justify, ridden by Mike Smith, wins the 150th Belmont Stakes. Justify becomes the 13th horse to achieve the Triple Crown. Justify is the first undefeated horse to complete the Triple Crown since 1977.

Kentucky Derby

The Kentucky Derby is traditionally run the first Saturday in May at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky.

The Derby is 1.25 miles in length.

The age limit for horses in the Derby is 3 years.

The winner is given a blanket of roses, so the race is also known as the “run for the roses.”

1875 – The Kentucky Derby is established.

September 5, 2020 – The 146th Kentucky Derby takes place. Authentic wins the race. The race was originally scheduled for May 2, but postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic.

May 1, 2021 – Medina Spirit wins the 147th running of the Kentucky Derby. The 3-year-old brown colt was trained by the legendary Bob Baffert, who becomes the winningest trainer in the history of the Derby with his seventh victory.

Preakness Stakes

The Preakness is traditionally run the third Saturday in May at Pimlico in Baltimore.

The Preakness is 1 and 3/16 miles in length.

The winner is covered by a blanket of black-eyed Susans.

May 27, 1873 – The first Preakness Stakes is run.

1890-1909 – The Preakness is run at Gravesend Track in Brooklyn, New York.

October 3, 2020 – The 145th running of the Preakness Stakes takes place without spectators. Swiss Skydiver wins the race. The race was originally scheduled for May 16, but postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic.

May 15, 2021 – The 146th running of the Preakness Stakes is scheduled to take place.

Belmont Stakes

The Belmont Stakes is generally run on the first or second Saturday in June at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York.

The longest of the three triple crown races at 1.5 miles; often referred to as the “Test of the Champion.”

Secretariat set a world record at the race that still stands for the mile and a half distance on a dirt track at 2:24.

The winner of the race is given a blanket made of between 300-400 white carnations, the traditional flower of the Belmont Stakes.

The Belmont Stakes is the oldest of the Triple Crown events.

June 19, 1867 – The first Belmont Stakes takes place at Jerome Park in the Bronx, New York.

June 20, 2020 – The 152nd Belmont Stakes takes place without spectators in attendance and as the first leg of the Triple Crown for the first time in history. Tiz the Law, with jockey Manny Franco, wins.

June 5, 2021 – The 153rd Belmont Stakes is scheduled to take place.

Categories
CNN-National & Wolrd

Kentucky Derby Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Kentucky Derby. The Derby is traditionally run on the first Saturday in May at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky.

May 1, 2021 – Medina Spirit wins the 147th running of the Kentucky Derby. The 3-year-old brown colt was trained by the legendary Bob Baffert, who becomes the winningest trainer in the history of the Derby with his seventh victory. Just over a week later, Baffert reveals the horse has tested positive for elevated levels of betamethasone, throwing the horse’s victory into question.

September 5, 2020 – The 146th Kentucky Derby takes place. Authentic wins the race. The race was originally scheduled for May 2, but postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Facts

The Derby is the first race in horse racing’s coveted Triple Crown, which also includes the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes.

The race is known as “The Greatest Two Minutes in Sports” for its approximate run time. The Derby is also referred to as “The Run for the Roses” due to the garland of 554 red roses draped over the winner.

Competing horses are 3 years of age.

The mint julep is the traditional beverage of Churchill Downs and the Kentucky Derby.

Approximately 120,000 mint juleps are served annually during the two-day period of the Kentucky Oaks and Kentucky Derby.

Only three fillies have won the Derby: Regret (1915), Genuine Risk (1980) and Winning Colors (1988).

No Derby has ever been postponed or canceled because of rain or bad weather.

Timeline

May 17, 1875 – The first Kentucky Derby is held. The winner is Aristides, a 3-year-old chestnut colt, beating 14 other horses.

1892 – Only three horses run the race, making it the smallest field ever for a Kentucky Derby.

1896 – The race distance is reduced from 1.5 miles to its present 1.25 miles.

1925 – NY Journal-American writer Bill Corum coins the phrase “run for the roses.”

1945 – The race is postponed to June 9 due to a horse racing ban during World War II.

May 3, 1952 – The Kentucky Derby is televised nationally for the first time.

1956 – The first Kentucky Derby Festival is held. This annual event runs for the two weeks preceding the actual races.

1968 – Dancer’s Image wins but fails a drug test and is disqualified. Second-place finisher Forward Pass is named the winner.

1973 – Secretariat wins with a time of 1:59 minutes, setting the record for the fastest time.

May 3, 2008 – Shortly after winner Big Brown crosses the finish line, second place finisher Eight Belles suffers fractures in both front legs and falls to the ground. Due to the severity of the injuries, the filly is euthanized on the track.

May 5, 2018 – The 144th Kentucky Derby sets a record as the wettest in Derby history with 3.15 inches of rain.

May 4, 2019 – The 145th Kentucky Derby takes place. Country House crosses the finish line second but is declared the winner after Maximum Security is disqualified for interference. It is the first time a Derby winner has been disqualified because of a foul on the track.

March 17, 2020 – Churchill Downs confirms that the Kentucky Derby has been postponed from May 2 to September 5 due to the coronavirus pandemic. Churchill Downs CEO Bill Carstanjen says in a statement, “Throughout the rapid development of the COVID-19 pandemic, our first priority has been how to best protect the safety and health of our guests, team members and community.

Categories
CNN-Politics

Jon Huntsman Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the life of Jon Huntsman, former Utah Governor and 2012 Republican presidential candidate.

Personal

Birth date: March 26, 1960

Birth place: Palo Alto, California

Birth name: Jon Meade Huntsman Jr.

Father: Jon Meade Huntsman Sr., billionaire chemical magnate

Mother: Karen (Haight) Huntsman

Marriage: Mary Kaye Cooper (1983-present)

Children: Asha Bharati, adopted from India; Gracie Mei, adopted from China; William, Jon III, Elizabeth, Abigail and Mary Anne

Education: Attended University of Utah, 1978-1980; University of Pennsylvania, B.A. in Political Science, 1987

Religion: Mormon

Other Facts

Dropped out of high school in his senior year to play piano with local bands. The University of Utah, at the time, allowed completion of high school coursework after admission.

Served a two-year Mormon mission in Taiwan.

Speaks fluent Mandarin Chinese.

Worked as legislative intern for Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT).

His father owned the company that invented the McDonald’s Big Mac clamshell box.

The family chemical business, Huntsman Corp., is a global enterprise with subsidiaries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North and South America.

Huntsman has served on the boards of Caterpillar Inc., the US Naval Academy Foundation, Hilton Worldwide and the National Committee on US-China Relations.

Timeline

1982-1983 – White House staff assistant to President Ronald Reagan.

1983-1989 – Executive at Huntsman Corp.

1989-1990 – Deputy assistant secretary for the Trade Development Bureau of the Commerce Department.

1990-1991 – Deputy assistant secretary of Commerce for East Asia and the Pacific.

1992-1993 – US ambassador to Singapore.

1995-2001 – President of Huntsman Cancer Foundation.

2001-2003 – Deputy US trade representative.

2001 – Divests of most personal stock upon becoming trade representative, including that held by his wife and held in the trust for his children.

2003-2004 – Chairman and CEO of Huntsman Family Holdings Co.

2004 – Places personal assets, 1.5% of Huntsman Family Holdings Co. in blind trust during gubernatorial campaign.

2005-2009 – 16th Governor of Utah, resigns in 2009 to become US ambassador to China.

2005 – Divests all personal holdings in Huntsman Corp.

July 2006 – Endorses Senator John McCain (R-AZ) in the 2008 presidential race.

2008 – Serves as national co-chairman of McCain’s 2008 presidential campaign.

August 7, 2009 – Huntsman is confirmed by the US Senate as US ambassador to China.

August 11, 2009-April 30, 2011 – Ambassador to China.

January 2011 – Delivers letter of resignation to President Barack Obama, stating his intention to step down as ambassador on April 30, 2011.

June 21, 2011 – Announces candidacy for 2012 GOP nomination for president at Liberty State Park in Jersey City, New Jersey, the same place Reagan launched his campaign in 1980.

October 18, 2011 – Boycotts the CNN/Western Republican Presidential Debate out of deference to New Hampshire, which is locked in a political scheduling fight with Nevada.

January 16, 2012 – Withdraws from the Republican presidential race and endorses former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney.

January 26, 2012 – Huntsman is named chairman of the Huntsman Cancer Foundation.

June 20, 2012 – The Brookings Institution announces that Huntsman will serve as a distinguished fellow.

January 3, 2013 – The bipartisan political group No Labels names Huntsman and Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV) as leaders of the organization.

January 15, 2014 – The Atlantic Council names Huntsman chairman of its board of directors.

September 3, 2014 – Huntsman tells the Deseret News he feels same-sex marriage across the country is “inevitable,” and rules out another run for president in 2016.

July 18, 2017 – The White House announces that President Donald Trump has chosen Huntsman to be the US ambassador to Russia.

September 28, 2017 – The Senate confirms Huntsman as ambassador to Russia.

November 1, 2018 – The Deseret News publishes an interview in which Huntsman reveals he has stage one skin cancer.

August 6, 2019 – Huntsman submits his resignation letter to President Trump. His resignation is effective October 3.

November 14, 2019 – Announces he is running for governor of Utah in 2020.

February 7, 2020 – Huntsman announces Provo Mayor Michelle Kaufusi as his running mate in the Utah gubernatorial race.

June 10, 2020 – Huntsman announces that he tested positive for coronavirus, and has been “experiencing classic symptoms.” Huntsman had previously tested negative for the deadly virus, only to receive a call telling him he was given the wrong results due to a faulty sample. After retaking the test, he tested positive.

July 6, 2020 – Hunstman concedes Utah’s GOP gubernatorial primary race to Lt. Gov. Spencer Cox.

September 8, 2020 Chevron announces that Huntsman has been reelected to the board of directors, effective September 15. Huntsman previously served on the board from 2014 to 2017.

October 2020 Reelected to the board of directors for Ford Motor Company, after serving on the board from 2012 to 2017.

January 21, 2021 Named chair of World Trade Center Utah (WTC Utah), an organization promoting the state’s businesses globally.