CNN-National & Wolrd

Gloria Steinem Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the life of writer and activist Gloria Steinem.


Birth date: March 25, 1934

Birth place: Toledo, Ohio

Birth name: Gloria Marie Steinem

Father: Leo Steinem, an antique dealer

Mother: Ruth (Nuneviller) Steinem

Marriage: David Bale (2000-2003, his death)

Education: Smith College, B.A., 1956

Other Facts

Steinem’s paternal grandmother, Pauline Perlmutter Steinem, was the president of the Ohio Woman Suffrage Association.

Breast cancer survivor.

Did not spend a full year in school until age 12.


1956-1958 – Lives in India on a Chester Bowles Fellowship.

1960 – Moves to New York and begins working at Help! magazine.

September 1, 1962 – One of her first feature articles is published by Esquire magazine.

1963 Works undercover as a “Bunny” at the Playboy Club in New York and then writes an exposé about the poor pay and working conditions.

1968 – Helps found New York magazine, and begins writing features and political columns including, “The City Politic.”

1969 – Begins writing and speaking about feminism after attending a meeting held by a women’s movement group that addressed the issue of abortion.

May 6, 1970 – Testifies before the United States Senate in support of the Equal Rights Amendment.

1971 – Co-founds the National Women’s Political Caucus, which works to increase the number of women in the political field.

1972 – Co-founds Ms. Magazine, the first feminist magazine, and the first to be created and operated entirely by women.

1973 – Co-founds the Ms. Foundation for Women.

November 18-21, 1977 – Organizes and attends the National Women’s conference in Texas. The conference is the first to be backed by the US government, and its purpose was proposing recommendations for widespread gender equality.

1983 – Steinem’s collection of essays “Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions” is published.

1992 – Steinem’s book “Revolution from Within: A Book of Self-Esteem” is published.

April 22, 1993 – Celebrates the first “Take Our Daughters To Work Day,” an educational program created by the Ms. Foundation to give girls a voice and presence in the workplace.

1993 – Inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.

January 12, 1993 – Co-produces the movie for television “Better off Dead” an examination of the parallels between abortion and the death penalty.

1996 – Creates the Women and AIDS Fund with the Ms. Foundation to support women living with HIV/AIDS.

2005 – Co-founds the Women’s Media Center with Jane Fonda and Robin Morgan.

2006 – Steinem’s book “Doing Sixty & Seventy” is published.

August 15, 2011 – The HBO documentary, “Gloria: In Her Own Words,” airs.

2013 – Steinem is a subject in the PBS documentary, “Makers,” a project that aims to record the stories of women who “made America.”

November 20, 2013 – Is awarded a Presidential Medal of Freedom by US President Barack Obama.

October 19, 2015 – Pens an op-ed in The Guardian declaring her support for 2016 presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.

October 27, 2015 – Her memoir, “My Life on the Road,” is published.

February 5, 2016 – Steinem makes a controversial comment on “Real Time with Bill Maher,” saying young women are supporting Senator Bernie Sanders in the presidential race because “the boys are with Bernie.” She later apologizes and claims her comment was misinterpreted.

May 10, 2016 – Steinem’s television show “WOMAN” premieres on VICELAND.

October 18, 2018 – The Off-Broadway production, “Gloria: A Life,” officially opens at the Daryl Roth Theatre.

October 29, 2019 – Steinem’s book “The Truth Will Set You Free, But First It Will Piss You Off!” is published.

September 30, 2020 – ”The Glorias,” a film is based on Steinem’s memoir “My Life on the Road,” premieres.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Grammy Awards Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is a look at the Grammy Awards.

March 14, 2021 – The 63rd Annual Grammy Awards take place at the Los Angeles Convention Center.

January 26, 2020 – The 62nd Annual Grammy Awards are presented at the Staples Center in Los Angeles.

2021 Grammy Awards – Winners (Selected)

Album of the Year
“Folklore,” Taylor Swift

Record of the Year
“Everything I Wanted,” Billie Eilish

Song of the Year
“I Can’t Breathe,” (performed by H.E.R.)

Best New Artist
Megan Thee Stallion

Complete List of Winners

2020 Grammy Awards – Winners (Selected)

Album of the Year:
“When We All Fall Asleep, Where Do We Go” (Billie Eilish)

Song of the Year:
“Bad Guy” (Billie Eilish)

Record of the Year:
“Bad Guy” (Billie Eilish)

Best New Artist:
Billie Eilish

Complete List of Winners


1957 – The National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, also known as The Recording Academy, is founded in Los Angeles.

May 4, 1959 – The first Grammy Awards ceremony is held. Winners included Ella Fitzgerald, Count Basie and Perry Como.

1963 – Bing Crosby receives the first Lifetime Achievement Award.

1971 – Andy Williams hosts the first live Grammy Awards telecast at the Hollywood Palladium.

1973 – The Grammy Hall of Fame is established.

1983 – The music video category is added.

1984 – The Reggae category is added.

1987 – The New Age category is added.

1988 – The Rap category is added.

1988 – The Grammy Foundation is established.

1990 – The Alternative category is added.

1993 – The Recording Academy opens its new national headquarters in Santa Monica, California.

1994 – The Technical Award is established.

1997 – The Latin Recording Academy is established.

September 13, 2000 – The first Latin Grammy Awards are presented.

December 2008 – The Grammy Museum opens in Los Angeles.

June 2020 – The Recording Academy announces changes to its awards and nominations process, including no longer using the term “urban” to describe music of black origin in its awards. The changes are made as part of the organization’s “commitment to evolve with the musical landscape.”

January 5, 2021 – According to a joint statement from the Recording Academy, CBS and show producers, the Grammy Awards, originally scheduled for January 31, are postponed until March due to the coronavirus pandemic.

CNN-National & Wolrd

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805-June 27, 1844) founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints around 1830. He is seen as a living prophet.

“The Book of Mormon” is believed to be the result of Joseph Smith’s communion with the divine.

It is also the source of the common nickname for the church and its followers, Mormons.


Joseph Smith claimed to have begun receiving messages at age 14 from God, Jesus Christ and other heavenly messengers.

Mormons consider themselves to be Christians. They follow the teachings found within the Christian “Bible,” “The Book of Mormon,” “Doctrine and Covenants” and “Pearl of Great Price.”

“The Book of Mormon” tells the story of Israelites who left Jerusalem around 600 BC and traveled to North America after a calling from God. They set up civilizations, and centuries later witnessed an appearance by Jesus Christ after his crucifixion and resurrection.

They believe that God sent many prophets to spread his word after Jesus Christ’s death and resurrection.

The church is led by a prophet who also serves as president of the church. The president serves for life.

The church’s organizational hierarchy is the all-male General Authorities: the First Presidency (the president and two counselors), the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, the First Quorum of the Seventy, the Second Quorum of the Seventy and the Presiding Bishopric (the bishop and two counselors); and the General Auxiliaries: the Primary, the all-female Relief Society, Sunday School, Young Men and Young Women.

Children are baptized at age eight. New members are also baptized.

There are two orders of priesthood. A young man 12 or older can enter into the Aaronic priesthood, seen as an earthly priesthood. Melchizedek priesthood can be obtained when a man turns 18. This entails spiritual and heavenly duties.

Follow a strict health code that prohibits the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee.

They are encouraged to tithe – giving 10% of their earnings to the church.

Many church members, between the ages 18 and 25 for males and 19 and 25 for females, become missionaries. Single men serve for two years; single women for 18 months.

The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City.


1827 – Smith is purportedly shown by an angel the burial site of engraved golden plates that tell the story of American prophets living in the New World.

1830 – He publishes “The Book of Mormon,” the translation of the golden plates deciphered through special stones and divine guidance.

July 17, 1831 – Smith claims to have received the revelation commanding the practice of plural marriage.

April 14, 1832 – Brigham Young is baptized into the church.

1835 – “Doctrine and Covenants” is published as a record of prophecies foretold to Smith. Smith writes in Section 132 that God has told him he can marry as many women as he wants.

1839 – Smith leads his followers to Commerce, Illinois, where he becomes mayor and renames the town Nauvoo.

February 1844 – Smith announces his candidacy for president of the United States.

February 1844 – Smith along with his brother Hyrum are jailed on charges of treason after using militia to protect Nauvoo from violence instigated by those opposed to Smith’s church.

June 27, 1844 – The jail, in Carthage, Illinois, where Smith and Hyrum are held is attacked, by an anti-Mormon mob and both men are killed. The death of Smith causes the church to splinter into three groups. A large group follows Brigham Young. Others follow Smith’s son James and others follow James Strang.

1846-1847 – Young and his followers leave Illinois, settling in Salt Lake City. Young becomes president of the church.

March 4, 1851-March 3, 1859 – Dr. John M. Bernhisel becomes the first Mormon to be elected to the US Congress where he serves as the delegate for the Utah Territory in the House of Representatives.

April 6-8, 1877 – Dedication for the first operating temple in Utah, in St. George. It is the only temple completed during Young’s tenure as president.

September 24, 1890 – The practice of polygamy is banned by the church. By 1910, members who continue the practice are excommunicated.

April 6-24, 1893 – The Salt Lake Temple is dedicated in Salt Lake City. It is the largest in square footage and takes 40 years to complete.

1917-1940 – William H. King (D-UT) is the first Latter-Day Saints member to be a US senator. He also serves in the House from 1897-1900.

January 4, 2007 – Harry Reid (D-Nev) is elected Senate majority leader, the highest office obtained by a Mormon in US history.

February 4, 2008 – Thomas S. Monson is chosen as the new president to replace Gordon B. Hinckley after Hinckley’s death January 27.

2008 and 2011 – Mormon and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney is a presidential aspirant for the Republican nomination for president of the United States, and is the Republican candidate in the 2012 election.

January 27, 2015 – At a press conference, church leaders pledge to support anti-discrimination laws for gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender people, as long the laws also protect the rights of religious groups. They also state that this pledge does not change church doctrine — including its opposition to gay marriage — and that it is “unfair” to characterize the church’s announcement as a national nondiscrimination campaign.

October 25, 2016 – The church launches Mormon and Gay, a new section of its official website that’s intended to facilitate understanding and provide information on sexual identification, church doctrine and mental health resources.

August 8, 2017 – The church excommunicates James J. Hamula, the first dismissal of a major church leader since 1989, without giving a reason. Hamula had been serving as a member of The First Quorum of the Seventy, one of church’s highest order of priests, and his release is not because of apostasy, or abandonment of religious beliefs, the church says.

August 16, 2018 – The church releases a new style guide noting its preference for using the full name of the church and discouraging the use of any other nickname or abbreviation.

April 4, 2019 – The church announces that those in same-sex marriages will no longer be treated as “apostates.” Their children can be baptized without special approval from church leaders. It gives bishops choice as to how they will respond to same-sex marriages within each congregation.

May 6, 2019 – The church announces that couples who have been married civilly no longer have to wait one year before getting sealed in a temple wedding.

August 2019 – The church changes its handbook to prohibit carrying lethal weapons on church property.

October 2, 2019 – The church announces that women will now be able to serve as witnesses to baptisms and temple sealings.

December 17, 2019 – The church responds to a whistleblower complaint that accuses the church of stockpiling $100 billion in accounts intended for charitable works, misleading members and avoiding taxes. “Claims being currently circulated are based on a narrow perspective and limited information,” the church said in a statement. “The Church complies with all applicable law governing our donations, investments, taxes, and reserves.”

March 25, 2020-May 11, 2020 – The church suspends all temple activity worldwide due to the coronavirus pandemic. A phased reopening follows.


More than 16.6 million members worldwide

More than 67,000 missionaries

167 temples worldwide

CNN-National & Wolrd

CIA Directors Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at directors of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). As part of America’s intelligence community, the CIA collects information about foreign governments, organized crime and terrorist groups.


September 18, 1947 – The Central Intelligence Agency is established. It was created by President Harry S. Truman under the National Security Act of 1947.

December 2004 – President George W. Bush signs terrorism prevention legislation, changing the director of central intelligence position to the director of the CIA. Porter Goss is the first “D/CIA” after the reorganization.

Current Director

Gina Haspel
– May 21, 2018-present
– Appointed by President Donald Trump
– Career – joins the CIA in 1985; Chief of Station; Deputy Director of the National Clandestine Service and Chief of Staff for the Director of the National Clandestine Service
– Acting CIA director after Mike Pompeo is sworn in as Secretary of State
First woman to become CIA director

Former Directors of Central Intelligence

Sidney Souers
– January 23-June 10, 1946
– Appointed by Truman as Director of Central Intelligence within the National Intelligence Authority.
– Military Career – Rear Admiral, US Navy; Deputy Chief of Naval Intelligence
– Later Career – first Executive Secretary, National Security Council (1947-1950)

Hoyt S. Vandenberg
– June 10, 1946-May 1, 1947
– Appointed by Truman as Director of Central Intelligence within the National Intelligence Authority.
– Military Career – General, US Army Air Corps
– Later Career – Vice Chief of Staff, Air Force; Chief of Staff, Air Force

Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter
– May 1, 1947-October 7, 1950
– Appointed by Truman as Director of Central Intelligence within the National Intelligence Authority.
– November 24, 1947- Reappointed, first director under the new National Security Act
– December 8, 1947- Senate confirmation
– Military Career – Rear Admiral, US Navy; Officer in Charge of Intelligence, Staff of Pacific Commander, Adm. Chester W. Nimitz
– Later Career – Vice Admiral; Inspector General of the Navy

Walter Bedell Smith
– October 7, 1950-February 9, 1953
– Appointed by Truman.
– Military Career – Lt. General, US Army; Chief of Staff for Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower; Commander, First Army
– Other Experience – Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-1949)
– Later Career – Undersecretary of State (1953-1954)

Allen Dulles
– February 26, 1953-November 29, 1961
– Appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
– Experience – US Diplomatic Service (1916-1926); Head, Office of Strategic Services, Bern, Switzerland (1942-1945); Deputy Director for Plans, CIA; Deputy Director, CIA

John A. McCone
– November 29, 1961-April 28, 1965
– Appointed by President John F. Kennedy.
– Military Career – Deputy Secretary of Defense; Under Secretary of the Air Force
– Other Experience – Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission

William F. Raborn Jr.
– April 28, 1965-June 30, 1966
– Appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
– Military Career – Vice Admiral; Director, US Navy Special Projects Office; Deputy Chief of Naval Operations

Richard Helms
June 30, 1966-February 2, 1973
– Appointed by Johnson.
– Military Career – US Naval Reserve
– Other experience – Office of Strategic Services (1943-1947); Deputy Director for Plans, CIA
– Later Career – US Ambassador to Iran (1973-1977)

James Schlesinger
February 3, 1973-July 2, 1973
– Appointed by President Richard M. Nixon.
– Experience – University of Virginia, Economics professor; Assistant Director, Office of Management and Budget; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission
– Later Career – Secretary of Defense (1973-1975); Secretary of Energy (1977-1979)

William Colby
– September 4, 1973-January 30, 1976
– Appointed by Nixon.
– Military Career – US Army enlisted as 2nd Lt.
– Other Experience – Office of Strategic Services (1943-1945), moved up through the ranks of the CIA; Deputy Director for Operations, CIA; attorney

George H. W. Bush
– January 30, 1976-January 20, 1977
– Appointed by President Gerald R. Ford.
– Military Career – Navy pilot
– Other Experience – Texas Congressman; United Nations Ambassador; Chairman, Republican National Committee; Chief US Liaison Office, China
– Later Career – US Vice President and President

Stansfield Turner
– March 9, 1977-January 20, 1981
– Appointed by President Jimmy Carter.
– Military Career – Admiral, US Navy; Director, Systems Analysis Division, Office of Chief of Naval Operations; President, US Naval War College; Commander, US Second Fleet; Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe, NATO

William Casey
– January 28, 1981-January 29, 1987
– Appointed by President Ronald Reagan.
– Military Career – Officer, US Naval Reserve
– Other Experience – attorney; Office of Strategic Services (1943-1945); Chairman, SEC; Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs; president and chairman, US Export-Import Bank; President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board; manager, Reagan presidential campaign

William Webster
– May 26, 1987-August 31, 1991
– Appointed by Reagan.
– Military Career – Lieutenant, US Navy
– Other Experience – US Attorney; Judge, US District Court and US Court of Appeals 8th Circuit; Director, FBI (1978-1987)

Robert Gates
– November 6, 1991-January 20, 1993
– Appointed by George H.W. Bush.
– Experience – Intelligence analyst, CIA; National Security Council staff; Deputy Director of CIA; Chairman, National Intelligence Council; Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; Assistant to the President and Deputy for National Security Affairs; Secretary of Defense (2006-2011)

R. James Woolsey Jr.
– February 5, 1993-January 10, 1995
– Appointed by President Bill Clinton.
– Military Career – Captain, US Army
– Other Experience – National Security Council Staff; General Counsel, Senate Committee on Armed Services; Under Secretary of the Navy; Adviser with US Delegation to SALT I; Ambassador and US representative, negotiations on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

John Deutch
– May 10, 1995-December 15, 1996
– Appointed by Clinton.
– Experience – Systems analyst, Defense Department; Under Secretary of Energy; Under Secretary of Defense; Deputy Secretary of Defense
– Later Career – Professor of Chemistry, MIT

George Tenet
– July 11, 1997-July 11, 2004
– Appointed by Clinton.
– Experience – Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (1982-1988); Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Intelligence Programs, National Security Council; Deputy Director of CIA

Former Directors of the Central Intelligence Agency

Porter Goss
– September 24, 2004-May 5, 2006
– Appointed by George W. Bush.
– Military Career – US Army intelligence officer
– Other Experience – clandestine service officer with the CIA; Sanibel, Florida, City Councilman, Mayor, Lee County Commission Chairman; Florida Congressman; Chairman, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Michael Hayden
– May 30, 2006-February 13, 2009
– Appointed by George W. Bush.
– Military Career – General, US Air Force

Leon Panetta
– February 13, 2009-June 30, 2011
– Appointed by President Barack Obama.
– Military Career – Captain, US Army
– Other Experience – Chief of Staff; California Representative; Chairman, House Committee on the Budget; Director, Office of Management and Budget
– July 1, 2011-February 2013 – Secretary of Defense.

David Petraeus
– September 6, 2011-November 2, 2012
– Appointed by Obama.
– Military Career – Commander, US Central Command (CentCom); Commander, US forces in Afghanistan (USFOR-A) and NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)

John Brennan
– March 8, 2013-January 20, 2017
– Appointed by Obama.
– Career – joins the CIA in 1980; Chief of Staff, CIA; Deputy Executive Director, CIA; Director of Terrorist Threat Integration Center, CIA; CEO, The Analysis Corporation

Mike Pompeo
– January 23, 2017-April 26, 2018
– Appointed by Trump
– Military Career – US Army (1986-1991)
– Other Experience – Thayer Aerospace, founder and CEO; Sentry International, president; US Representative from Kansas (2011-2017); Secretary of State (2018-present)

CNN-National & Wolrd

Affirmative Action Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here is some background information about affirmative action as well as a few notable court cases.

Affirmative action policies focus on improving opportunities for groups of people, like women and minorities, who have been historically excluded in United States’ society. The initial emphasis was on education and employment. President John F. Kennedy was the first president to use the term in an executive order.


Supporters argue that affirmative action is necessary to ensure racial and gender diversity in education and employment. Critics state that it is unfair and causes reverse discrimination.

Racial quotas are considered unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.

The state of Texas replaced its affirmative action plan with a percentage plan that guarantees the top 10% of high-school graduates a spot in any state university in Texas. California and Florida have similar programs.

Timeline (selected cases)

1954 – The US Supreme Court, in Brown v. Board of Education, rules that the “separate but equal” doctrine violates the Constitution.

1961 – President Kennedy creates the Council on Equal Opportunity in an executive order. This ensures that federal contractors hire people regardless of race, creed, color or national origin.

1964 The Civil Rights Act renders discrimination illegal in the workplace.

1978 – In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, a notable reverse discrimination case, the Supreme Court rules that colleges cannot use racial quotas because it violates the Equal Protection Clause. As one factor for admission, however, race can be used.

1995The University of Michigan rejects the college application of Jennifer Gratz, a top high school student in suburban Detroit who is white.

October 14, 1997 – Gratz v. Bollinger, et al., is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. The University of Michigan is sued by white students, including Gratz and Patrick Hamacher, who claim the undergraduate and law school affirmative action policies using race and/or gender as a factor in admissions is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

December 3, 1997 – A similar case, Grutter v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. Barbara Grutter, denied admission to the University of Michigan Law School, claims that other applicants, with lower test scores and grades, were given an unfair advantage due to race.

December 2000 – The judge in the Gratz v. Bollinger case rules that the University of Michigan’s undergraduate admissions policy does not violate the standards set by the Supreme Court.

March 2001 – The judge in the Grutter v. Bollinger case rules the University of Michigan Law School’s admissions policy is unconstitutional.

December 2001 – The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals in both University of Michigan cases.

May 14, 2002 The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals reverses the district court’s decision in Grutter v. Bollinger.

January 17, 2003 – The administration of President George W. Bush files a friend-of-the-court brief with the Supreme Court, opposing the University of Michigan’s affirmative action program.

April 1, 2003 – The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments on the two cases. US Solicitor General Theodore Olson offers arguments in support of the plaintiffs.

June 23, 2003 – The Supreme Court rules on Grutter v. Bollinger that the University of Michigan Law School may give preferential treatment to minorities during the admissions process. The Court upholds the law school policy by a vote of five to four.

June 23, 2003 – In Gratz v. Bollinger, the undergraduate policy in which a point system gave specific “weight” to minority applicants is overturned six to three.

December 22, 2003 – The Supreme Court rules that race can be a factor in universities’ admission programs but it cannot be an overriding factor. This decision affects the Grutter and Gratz cases.

November 7, 2006The Michigan electorate strikes down affirmative action by approving a proposition barring affirmative action in public education, employment, or contracting.

January 31, 2007 – After the Supreme Court sends the case back to district court; the case is dismissed. Gratz and Hamacher settle for $10,000 in administrative costs, but do not receive damages.

2008 – Abigail Noel Fisher, a white woman, sues the University of Texas. She argues that the university should not use race as a factor in admission policies that favor African-American and Hispanic applicants over whites and Asian-Americans.

July 1, 2011 An appeals court overturns Michigan’s 2006 ban on the use of race and/or gender as a factor in admissions or hiring practices.

November 15, 2012 – The US Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals throws out Michigan’s 2006 ban on affirmative action in college admissions and public hiring, declaring it unconstitutional.

June 24, 2013 – The Supreme Court sends the University of Texas case back to the lower court for further review without ruling.

October 15, 2013 – The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in a case concerning Michigan’s 2006 law on affirmative action.

April 22, 2014 – In a six to two ruling, the Supreme Court upholds Michigan’s ban of using racial criteria in college admissions.

July 15, 2014 – The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upholds the use of race by the University of Texas as a factor in undergraduate admissions to promote diversity on campus. The vote is two to one.

November 17, 2014 – Students for Fair Admissions sues Harvard University, alleging Harvard intentionally discriminates against Asian-Americans. Students for Fair Admissions is run by Edward Blum, a conservative advocate, who sought Asian-Americans rejected by Harvard.

December 9, 2015 – The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in the University of Texas case regarding race as a factor in admissions policies.

June 23, 2016 – The US Supreme Court upholds the Affirmative Action program by a vote of four to three with Justice Elena Kagan taking no part in the consideration. The ruling allows the limited use of affirmative action policies by schools.

October 15, 2018 – The lawsuit against Harvard filed in 2014 by Students for Fair Admissions goes to trial.

February 2019 – Texas Tech University enters an agreement with the Department of Education to stop considering race and/or national origin as a factor in its admissions process, concluding a 14-year-long investigation into the school’s use of affirmative action.

October 1, 2019 – US District Court Judge Allison Burroughs upholds Harvard’s admissions process in the Students for Fair Admissions case, ruling that while Harvard’s admissions process is “not perfect,” she would not “dismantle a very fine admissions program that passes constitutional muster, solely because it could do better.”

November 12, 2020 – A Boston-based US appeals court rejects an appeal brought by the Students for Fair Admissions group.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Immigration Statistics Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at immigration to the United States.

Legal Immigration Statistics

2019 – 1,031,765 people are granted lawful permanent residence in the United States. The top countries of origin of these “green card” recipients, or LPRs:

— Mexico = 153,502

— China = 60,029

— India = 51,139

— Dominican Republic = 49,815

— Philippines = 43,478

2019 – The top US states where legal permanent residents live are:

— California = 193,093

— New York = 124,026

— Florida = 118,140

— Texas = 107,955

— New Jersey = 48,754

2019 – A total of 843,593 people become naturalized US citizens.

Residents becoming naturalized citizens in 2019 had spent a median of eight years in lawful permanet resident (LPR) status. Immigrants born in Africa had the shortest wait time, six years, while those from North America had the longest wait time, 10 years.

Undocumented Immigration Statistics

2018 – The Department of Homeland Security estimates that there were 12 million unauthorized immigrants living in the United States in 2015, up from 11.6 million in 2010. The top countries of origin are:

— Mexico = 6.6 million

— El Salvador = 750,000

— Guatemala = 620,000

— India = 470,000

— Honduras = 440,000

— Philippines = 370,000

2015 – The top US states where unauthorized immigrants settle are:

— California (24%)

— Texas (16%)

— Florida (7%)

— New York (5%)

— Illinois (4%)

20191,013,539 unauthorized immigrants are apprehended.

2019 359,885 unauthorized immigrants are removed.

2019 171,445 unauthorized immigrants return without an order of removal.

Unaccompanied Alien Children

“Unaccompanied alien children” (UAC – term used by US Customs and Border Protection) are referred to the Office of Refugee Resettlement, part of the Department of Health and Human Services, for care while their immigration cases are adjudicated:

— FY2020 – 15,381

— FY2019 – 69,488

— FY2018 – 49,100

— FY2017 – 40,810

— FY2016 – 59,170

— FY2015 – 33,726

— FY2014 – 57,496

The top countries of origin for UAC (FY2020)

— Guatemala (48%)

— Honduras (25%)

— El Salvador (14%)

— Mexico (6%)

About 68% of UAC are boys.

About 37% of UAC are between 15 and 16 years old.

The average length of stay in shelter care was 102 days.

CNN-National & Wolrd

American Generation Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at six generations of Americans in the 20th century: the Greatest Generation (or GI Generation), the Silent Generation, baby boomers, Generation X, millennials and Generation Z.

In order to examine economic trends and social changes over time, demographers compare groupings of people bracketed by birth year. There are sometimes variations in the birth year that begins or ends a generation, depending on the source. The groupings below are based on studies by the US Census, Pew Research and demographers Neil Howe and William Strauss.

The Greatest Generation (or GI Generation)

Born in 1924 or earlier.

Tom Brokaw coined the term the Greatest Generation as a tribute to Americans who lived through the Great Depression and then fought in WWII. His 1998 bestselling book, “The Greatest Generation,” popularized the term.

John F. Kennedy, born in 1917, was the first member of the Greatest Generation to become president. Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, Gerald R. Ford, Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, and George H.W. Bush were also born between 1901 and 1924.

The Silent Generation

Born 1925-1945 (Sometimes listed as 1925-1942).

A 1951 essay in Time magazine dubbed the people in this age group the “Silent Generation” because they were more cautious than their parents. “By comparison with the ‘Flaming Youth’ of their fathers & mothers, today’s younger generation is a still, small flame.”

The Silent Generation helped shape 20th century pop culture, with pioneering rock musicians, iconic filmmakers, television legends, beat poets, gonzo journalists and groundbreaking political satirists.

No members of the Silent Generation have served as president.

Baby Boomers

Born 1946-1964 (Sometimes listed as 1943-1964)

Baby boomers were named for an uptick in the post-WWII birth rate.

At the end of 1946, the first year of the baby boom, there were approximately 2.4 million baby boomers. In 1964, the last year of the baby boom, there were nearly 72.5 million baby boomers. The population peaked in 1999, with 78.8 million baby boomers, including people who immigrated to the United States and were born between 1946 and 1964.

Bill Clinton was the first baby boomer to serve as president. George W. Bush, Barack Obama and President Donald Trump are also baby boomers.

According to the Census, the baby boom began in 1946 but Howe and Strauss, authors of the groundbreaking 1991 book, “Generations: The History of America’s Future,” argued that the baby boom began as a social and cultural phenomenon with people who were born in 1943.

Generation X

Born 1965-1980 (Sometimes listed as 1965-1979)

“Class X” was the name of a chapter in a 1983 book, “Class: A Guide Through the American Status System,” by historian Paul Fussell. Novelist Douglas Coupland used the term as the title of his first book, “Generation X: Tales for An Accelerated Culture,” published in 1991.

No members of Generation X have served as president.

Although about 75% of people in this group earn more than baby boomers did when they were the same age, only 36% have more wealth than their parents, due to debt, according to a 2014 Pew report.

In the 2016 presidential election, Generation X-ers and millennials made up more than half of the electorate, according to Pew. For the first time in decades, younger voters outnumbered older voters, albeit by a slight margin. Millennials and Generation-X-ers (age 18-51), cast 69.6 million votes, compared with 67.9 million votes cast by Baby Boomers and older voters (age 52 and up).

Pew Research projects that in 2028, Generation X-ers will outnumber baby boomers.


Born 1981-1996 (Sometimes listed as 1980-2000)

Howe and Strauss introduced the term millennials in 1991, the year their book, “Generations,” was published.

In 2014, the number of millennials in the United States eclipsed the number of baby boomers, according to the Census Bureau. The Census counted approximately 83.1 million millennials, compared with 75.4 million baby boomers. Millennials represented one quarter of the nation’s population. The Census also reported that millennials are more diverse than previous generations, as 44.2% are part of a minority race or ethnic group.

About 39% of millennials ages 25-37 have a bachelor’s degree or higher, a larger percentage than previous generations, according to Pew. Millennials with a bachelor’s degree or higher had median annual earnings valued at $56,000 in 2018, about the same earnings as Generation X workers in 2001. Millennials without a college education had lower earnings that prior generations. About 46% of millennials ages 25-37 were married in 2018, a lower percentage than Generation X (57%), baby boomers (67%) and the Silent Generation (83%).

About 15% of millennials age 25-37 lived at home with their parents as of 2018, according to Pew. Fewer members of older generations lived at home with their parents between the ages of 25-37. The rate for Generation-X was 9%. The rate for Baby Boomers and the Silent Generation was 8%. Education factors into the percentage of millennials living at home. Among millennials without college degrees, 20% lived at home with their parents.

2016 was the first year any millennial was eligible to run for president (the minimum age is 35).

Generation Z or Gen Z (sometimes called post-millennials)

Born 1997- no endpoint has been set

In January 2019, Pew announced that the post-millennial cohort will be called Gen Z.

According to Pew, Gen Z is the most racially and ethnically diverse cohort. One in four members of Gen Z are Hispanic while 52% are non-Hispanic white and 14% are black. A total of 6% are Asian and the remaining 4% are of another racial identity, primarily two or more races. The majority of individuals in Gen Z live in metropolitan areas and western states, with just 13% residing in rural areas.

High school completion and college enrollment rates for Gen Z are up, with significant increases for young adults who are Hispanic or African-American, according to Pew. In 2017, 64% of Gen Z women aged 18-20 were enrolled in college, an increase over millennials (57%) and Generation X (43%).

CNN-National & Wolrd

1993 World Trade Center Bombing Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s some background information about the 1993 World Trade Center Bombing, which killed six people and injured more than 1,000. Six suspects were convicted of directly participating in the bombing. The seventh suspect, Abdul Rahman Yasin, is still at large.


The explosion created a hole 200 feet by 100 feet, several stories deep. It caused the PATH station ceiling to collapse.

The 1,200-pound bomb was in a Ryder truck parked in a parking garage beneath the World Trade Center.

An estimated 50,000 people were evacuated.

Ramzi Yousef directed the organization and execution of the bombing. He said he did it to avenge the sufferings Palestinian people had endured at the hands of US-aided Israel.


February 26, 1993 – At 12:18 p.m. ET, a bomb explodes on the second subterranean level of Vista Hotel’s public parking garage, below the 2 World Trade Center building.

February 28, 1993 – The FBI confirms that a bomb caused the explosion. In the wreckage, federal agents find shattered van parts with a vehicle identification number.

March 4, 1993 – Mohammad Salameh is arrested after he claims a refund on a rented van authorities believe carried the explosives.

March 5, 1993 – Authorities seize bomb-making chemicals at a shed Salameh had rented.

March 10, 1993 – Nidal Ayyad is arrested at home in New Jersey.

March 18, 1993 – Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman denies involvement in the bombing. Abdel-Rahman is an Egyptian cleric who emigrated to the United States. Some of the 1993 bombing suspects frequented the New Jersey mosque where he preached.

March 24, 1993 – Mahmud Abouhalima is arrested in Egypt and extradited to the United States.

March 29, 1993 – The World Trade Center re-opens.

May 6, 1993 – Ahmad Ajaj becomes the sixth person charged in the bombing.

August 25, 1993 – Abdel-Rahman is indicted for involvement in a large terrorist plot that includes the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

October 4, 1993 – Trial opens for four of the defendants: Salameh, Ayyad, Abouhalima and Ajaj.

March 4, 1994 – Four defendants, Salameh, Ayyad, Abouhalima and Ajaj, are convicted. They are sentenced to prison terms of 240 years each. In 1998, the sentences are vacated. In 1999, the men are re-sentenced to terms of more than 100 years.

February 7, 1995 – Suspected WTC bombing mastermind Yousef is captured abroad by the FBI and State Department.

October 1995 – Abdel-Rahman is convicted of seditious conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.

January 8, 1998 – After being convicted, Yousef is sentenced to 240 years in prison for his role in organizing the bombing. “I am a terrorist and proud of it,” he tells the court.

April 3, 1998 – Eyad Ismoil is sentenced to 240 years. Ismoil drove the van loaded with a homemade bomb into the World Trade Center.

August 4, 1998 – A federal appeals court upholds the 1994 convictions of four men convicted in the bombing but orders them to be re-sentenced because they did not have lawyers when they were originally sentenced.

August 6, 2001 – A federal appeals panel upholds the sentences of the four men who had been convicted.

April 4, 2005 – The US State Department announces that it is offering a reward of up to $5 million for information leading to the arrest and conviction of Abdul Rahman Yasin, who is still at large.

September 26, 2005 – A jury begins hearing arguments about whether the owners of the World Trade Center should be held liable for the 1993 terrorist attack on the fallen landmark. Hundreds of affected businesses and survivors allege in the lawsuit that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey failed to implement expert recommendations to end public access to an underground parking garage.

October 26, 2005 – A New York jury rules that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was negligent in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing that killed six people and injured 1,000. Damages will be determined in cases for individual victims.

April 30, 2008 – An appeals court upholds a 2005 ruling which holds New York and New Jersey Port Authority liable for damages incurred during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

February 20, 2009 – The first trial involving a victim of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the Port Authority opens. Linda Nash is seeking up to $8 million in damages for the injuries she suffered in the attack.

March 12, 2009 – A jury awards Nash $5.46 million for injuries she suffered in the attack.

September 22, 2011 – New York Court of Appeals, in a 4-3 ruling, excludes the Port Authority from claims of negligence related to the 1993 bombing.

May 11, 2012 – The judgment in which Nash was awarded $5.46 million for injuries suffered in the attack is dismissed based on the Port Authority’s exclusion from liability.

July 14, 2015 – The Appellate Division for the New York Supreme Court restores the jury award for Nash.

February 18, 2017 – Abdel-Rahman, the blind Egyptian-born cleric who inspired terrorist plots including the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, passes away in an American prison at the age of 78.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Spy Court Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s some background information about the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.


The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was created in 1978.

It exists to oversee and authorize activities carried out under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).

About the Court

Before the Patriot Act (2001), foreign intelligence had to be a primary purpose of the investigation. Now, foreign intelligence has to be a significant purpose.

The court meets in a high security room, on the sixth floor of the Justice Department.

All proceedings of the court are secret.

The court has two parts: a lower court and a Court of Review.

The lower court has a rotating panel of 11 Federal District Court judges. At least three of the judges must live within 20 miles of the District of Columbia.

The Court of Review consists of three judges.


October 25, 1978 – President Jimmy Carter signs the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act into law, which establishes the court.

October 26, 2001 – President George W. Bush signs into law the USA Patriot Act, after the attacks of September 11th.

May 17, 2002 – The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court turns down the Justice Department’s request to allow intelligence agents and criminal prosecutors more freedom to work together on cases. According to the New York Times, this is the first time in its 24-year history that the court turned down a request from the Justice Department.

May 17, 2002 – The court identifies 75 cases in which the FBI and Justice Department submitted false information in order to gain approval for surveillance. All of the cases occurred during the administration of Bill Clinton.

August 22, 2002 – The Justice Department appeals the ruling handed down by the lower court in May.

September 9, 2002 – The Court of Review meets for the first time in its history. The judges hear arguments from Solicitor General Theodore Olson that the USA Patriot Act of 2001 has expanded the scope of FISA and allows for greater cooperation between intelligence and law enforcement agencies. No other opinions are heard, as per the rules of the court.

September 10, 2002 – The Senate Judiciary Committee calls on the Court of Review to make public all transcripts from the September 9 hearing, as well as the Court’s decision. Senator Patrick Leahy, head of the Judiciary Committee, says, “We need to know how this law (the Patriot Act) is being interpreted and applied.”

November 2, 2002 – The Court of Review overturns a key court ruling which had placed limits on the government’s use of wiretaps targeting suspected spies and terrorists.

December 15, 2005 – The New York Times reports that Bush signed a presidential order in 2002 allowing the National Security Agency (NSA) to eavesdrop on Americans and others in the US (on international calls) without obtaining warrants through the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court . The newspaper reports that as many as 500 people in the US are being monitored at any one time, and between 5,000 and 7,000 people overseas are being wiretapped.

December 16, 2005 – In his live weekly radio address, Bush acknowledges that he has authorized wiretaps without warrants but defends the action as “fully consistent with my constitutional responsibilities and authorities.”

December 19, 2005 – At a news conference, Bush defends the warrantless wiretapping, “This program is carefully reviewed approximately every 45 days to ensure it is being used properly. Leaders in the United States Congress have been briefed more than a dozen times on this program. And it has been effective in disrupting the enemy while safeguarding our civil liberties. This program has targeted those with known links to al-Qaida. I’ve reauthorized this program more than 30 times since September the 11th attacks, and I intend to do so for so long as the nation faces the continuing threat of an enemy that wants to kill our American citizens.”

December 19, 2005 – Lower court judge James Robertson resigns, via letter to Chief Justice John Roberts. According to the Washington Post, the resignation is in protest of Bush’s actions concerning the warrantless wiretaps.

August 17, 2006 – Judge Anna Diggs Taylor, of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, strikes down the NSA warrantless wiretapping program, saying that it violates free speech and privacy rights.

January 17, 2007 – The Bush Administration announces that it will allow the court to oversee its domestic surveillance program and will seek the court’s permission before eavesdropping. This reverses the position held by the administration since the secret wiretapping program was revealed in 2005.

August 5, 2007 – Bush signs into law the Protect America Act of 2007, which updates the Foreign Surveillance Act of 1978, but only for a period of six months. The new law gives the attorney general or the director of national intelligence the authority to approve surveillance of suspected terrorists overseas, bypassing the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court .

June 5, 2013 – The British newspaper The Guardian publishes a top secret FISA court order requiring Verizon to turn over millions of its customers’ telephone records to the National Security Agency. According to the report, the order was requested by the FBI and gives the NSA blanket access to the phone records of millions of Americans.

January 17, 2014 – President Barack Obama calls on Congress to authorize establishment of a new panel of outside advocates to participate in “significant cases” before the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court that handles intelligence collection issues.

June 2, 2015 – Obama signs the USA Freedom Act, which includes a number of FISA court reforms. FISA court decisions will be declassified, as per the law, and an expert panel will be established to advise the court on civil liberties, technology and other matters. Under the new rules, investigative agencies must get FISA court authorization to access metadata from telecommunications companies. The USA Freedom Act allows the NSA to collect phone records for a limited six-month transitional period.

April 12, 2017 – The Washington Post reports that the FBI and the Justice Department obtained a warrant from a FISA court judge to monitor President Donald Trump’s former campaign adviser, Carter Page, as part of its investigation into possible ties between Trump’s campaign and Russia.

September 18, 2017 – CNN reports that US investigators wiretapped former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort under secret court orders before and after the election. Surveillance began in 2014 after the FBI began investigating Washington consulting firms working for Ukraine’s former ruling party and was discontinued in 2016 due to lack of evidence. A new FISA court warrant was obtained after the FBI began investigating ties between Trump campaign associates and suspected Russian operatives.

March 28, 2018 – The Justice Department’s internal watchdog announces that it has launched a probe into the department and the FBI’s handling of warrant applications under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

July 21, 2018 – The FBI releases a redacted version of its previously classified foreign surveillance warrant application on Trump campaign foreign policy adviser Carter Page.

August 19, 2020 – Former FBI lawyer Kevin Clinesmith formally pleads guilty to changing text in an email when working to renew the surveillance application of Page in 2017. He admits to one charge of altering an email to another official in 2017 that said Page wasn’t a previous government source, when he had been one.

CNN-National & Wolrd

Roe v. Wade Fast Facts

CNN Editorial Research

Here’s a look at the US Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade.


1971 – The case is filed by Norma McCorvey, known in court documents as Jane Roe, against Henry Wade, the district attorney of Dallas County, who enforced a Texas law that prohibited abortion, except to save a woman’s life.


January 22, 1973 – The US Supreme Court, in a 7-2 decision, affirms the legality of a woman’s right to have an abortion under the Fourteenth amendment to the Constitution. The Court held that a woman’s right to an abortion fell within the right to privacy (recognized in Griswold v. Connecticut) protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision gave a woman the right to an abortion during the entirety of the pregnancy and defined different levels of state interest for regulating abortion in the second and third trimesters.

The ruling affected laws in 46 states.

Full-text opinions by the Justices can be viewed here.

Legal Timeline

1971 – The case is filed by Norma McCorvey, known in court documents as Jane Roe, against Henry Wade, the district attorney of Dallas County, who enforced a Texas law that prohibited abortion, except to save a woman’s life.

1971 – The Supreme Court agrees to hear the case filed by Roe against Wade, who was enforcing the Texas abortion law that had been declared unconstitutional in an earlier federal district court case. Wade was ignoring the legal ruling and both sides appealed.

December 13, 1971 – The case is argued before the US Supreme Court.

October 11, 1972 – The case is reargued before the US Supreme Court.

January 22, 1973 – The US Supreme Court, in a 7-2 decision, affirms the legality of a woman’s right to have an abortion under the Fourteenth amendment to the Constitution.

June 17, 2003 – McCorvey (Roe) files a motion with the US District Court in Dallas to have the case overturned and asks the court to consider new evidence that abortion hurts women. Included are 1,000 affidavits from women who say they regret their abortions.

September 14, 2004 – A three-judge panel of the 5th US Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans dismisses McCorvey’s motion to have the case overturned, according to the Court’s clerk.

The Players

McCorvey – Texas resident who sought to obtain an abortion. Texas law prohibited abortions except to save the pregnant mother’s life. McCorvey was pregnant when she became the lead plaintiff in the case. She gave up the baby for adoption.

McCorvey has since come forward and changed sides on the abortion debate. In 1997, McCorvey started Roe No More, a pro-life outreach organization that was dissolved in 2008. McCorvey died on February 18, 2017.

Wade – district attorney of Dallas County from 1951 to 1987. McCorvey sued him because he enforced a law that prohibited abortion, except to save a woman’s life. He died on March 1, 2001.

Sarah Weddington – Lawyer for McCorvey.

Linda Coffee – Lawyer for McCorvey.

Jay Floyd – Argued the case for Texas the first time.

Robert C. Flowers – Reargued the case for Texas.

Supreme Court Justice Opinions

Majority: Harry A. Blackmun (for The Court), William J. Brennan, Lewis F. Powell Jr., Thurgood Marshall

Concurring: Warren Burger, William Orville Douglas, Potter Stewart

Dissenting: William H. Rehnquist, Byron White